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" Est locus in rebus " 



All rig/its reserved 





THIS atlas is intended to aid the student of English History both in comprehending the leading historical 
facts and tendencies, and in retaining them in his memory. It attempts to be a cartographic complement to 
John Richard Green's History of the English People. The experience of fifteen years' teaching of History in 
England, America, and on the continent has convinced the author that no clear and permanent idea of past 
events can be obtained, unless by disproportionately hard study, without projecting historic events on a map. 
Quite apart from the theoretically certain influence of the geographical configuration and position of a country 
on its history, it is beyond any doubt that a graphic representation of the leading events of political history is 
the one thing needed to facilitate a full and living knowledge of the past. Historical maps giving nothing 
but the locality and names of the places where events happened can, however, not ba held to project these 
events plastically. Considering that of all the powers of recalling things or ideas, the memory for movements 
and their incident places is by far the commonest and strongest ; considering, further, that the events of 
History are mostly not static but of a decidedly dynamic nature, it is evident that any means of representing 
the movements of historical events by graphic methods suggesting movements will necessarily give a truer and 
more impressive mental picture of the events than mere words can ever do. Finally, it is unquestionable that 
in colour there is a very powerful aid to memory, people, as a rule, remembering colours much more easily than 
black lines. 

For all these reasons of practical paedagogy, and quite apart from other considerations, the author has long 
applied coloured lines, suggesting movement by means of arrows, for the more plastic representation of historic 
events, with a result surpassing all expectations.* The average student will, by the aid of such maps, acquire a 
firm grasp of the sequence and connection of historic facts and, it may confidently be added, in one-tenth of the 
time hitherto needed for that end. 

Apart, however, from these motives of practical paedagogy, forming though they do arguments of the 
weightiest kind, arguments of a still graver description are militating for the study of such plastic maps. 
History is largely the make of geography ; or as Green puts it : "Physical geography has still its part to play 
in the written record of that human history to which it gives so much of its shape and form." The paramount 
importance of geography as the basis of a study of history has been brought home to Englishmen by the late 
war in South Africa, which has forced them to realise how impossible it is to understand events in their con- 
nection without a knowledge of such things as the relative position of towns and villages ; the relative course of 
rivers ; the nature of the frontier ; remoteness from or indentation by the sea ; etc. All these circumstances 
must be taken into account in drawing up the strategy of a campaign, strategy being in a great measure the art 
of adapting military movements to the geographical conditions of a given country. Napoleon's genius consisted 
largely in the power of knowing the country he attacked in all its geographical features. On his mind was 
impressed for military purposes one vast and infinitely accurate map of the country he invaded. 

The present atlas endeavours to initiate the student into the knowledge jot the strategy of events, and to 
accustom him to look at history from that most fertile of points of view, the geographical correlation of events 
Whether in the purely military maps, by which the comprehension of campaigns is so powerfully aided ; or in 

* The author's system has been accepted by The Times, in the maps of The Times History of (he South African War. 


maps such as that giving the geographical distribution of the chief feudal barons (map No. 8), the distribution 
of the abbeys and castles in Normandy (No. 7), the enclosures in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (No. 17), 
the discoveries under the Tudors (No. 22), the geographical distribution of British genius (Nos. 53, 54, 55), etc., 
the student (guided by the texts added, where they appeared necessary, to thirty-five maps out of fifty-five), will 
soon acquire the habit of historically localizing facts. He will thereby both learn very instructive lessons, and 
incredibly strengthen his memory for historical facts. 

One condition is, however, absolutely indispensable: The Student (we may add the Critic too) 

must in no case satisfy himself with merely looking- at the maps ; he must invariably first 
trace them several times, following the text, and then try to draw each map from memory. 

Once the student has drawn a map of this atlas from memory with fair accuracy, he will be surprised by the 
familiarity he will distinctly feel to have won with the most complicated sets of historic events. It may be 
stated, without hesitation, that by six to eight hours' work (i.e. tracing and free drawing) of maps Nos. 24 
and 25, the student will acquire a clear, connected, and full knowledge of the essential strategic features of 
the Great Civil War (1642-1654), one of the most complicated periods treated in this atlas. Even for purposes 
of higher study, the student will be enabled to compare with real power, and not merely rhetorically, the 
contemporary wars of the Fronde in France with the Civil War in England. By merely looking at the maps 
of this atlas, some of them will appear rather complicated. By tracing them, with the aid of the texts, the 
complication will soon disappear. Moreover, all superfluous cartographic features have been omitted. No 
" hill- work " (or mountains) has been entered, in that the scale of the maps does not admit of even approxi- 
matively accurate hill-work, which would therefore only serve to obscure the necessary clearness of the maps. 
Nor are such places, bays, capes, or rivers, named or entered as are not absolutely necessary for the events 
represented on the map. Yet although topographical details are restricted to historically important entries, 
the present atlas contains more entries of places, rivers, bays, etc., than any other atlas of English history 
hitherto published. 

It must be remarked that the maps, the texts, and the index are mutually complementary to one another, 
and that the student is requested to consult the index, on the fulness and accuracy of which great pains have 
been spent, in any case of doubt. The index does not include the names of single historic persons. 

The material for each map has invariably been collected from the original sources of information, as far 
as they are available. 

The author has to thank the Rev. W. D. Parish and the Sussex Archaeological Society for permission to 
use part of their Sussex Domesday Map. He likewise acknowledges that Messrs. Longmans, Green and Co. 
permitted him to use Prof. Ashley's map, forming No. 17 of this atlas; and the late Prof. Gardiner's 
copy of an originally official map, No. 38 of this atlas. The author is also much obliged to Monsieur le 
Professeur Le Frere Barthelemy-Pierre, of Rouen, to whom most of map No. 7 is due. 


LONDON, September 26, 1902. 

33, ST. LUKE'S ROAD, W. 


. < 



1066 A.D. (With Text.) 

2. EOMAN BRITAIN. (With Text.) 









11. THE BARONS' WAR. 1263-1265. (With Text.) 

12. SCOTCH WARS OF INDEPENDENCE. 1296-1346. (With Text.) 


14. THE HUNDRED YEARS' WAR. PART I. 1338-1396. (With Text.) 

15. THE HUNDRED YEARS' WAR. PART II. 1396-1453. (With Text.) 



18. WARS OF THE ROSES. 1455-1485. (With Text.) 






24. THE GREAT CIVIL WAR. I. 1642-16*5. (With Text.) 

25. THE GREAT CIVIL WAR. II. 1645-1654. (With Text.) 





29. WILLIAM III. AND IRELAND. 1689-1691. (With Text.) 









36. ENGLISH CAMPAIGNS IN INDIA. PART II. 1802-1852. (With Text.) 

37. ENGLISH CAMPAIGNS IN INDIA. PART III. 1857-1886. (With Text.) 

38. INDIA IN 1804. 




INDIES. (With Text.) 




TRAFALGAR. 1793-1815. (With Text.) 

44. ANGLO-AMERICAN WAR. 1812-1814. (With Text.) 

45. PENINSULAR WAR. 1808-1814. (With Text.) 


47. 48, 49. MODERN AFRICA. 

50. THE CRIMEAN WAR. (With Text.) 




INDEX Pages 115 


+ means "beaten by," so that the initial of the defeated precedes that of the victor. 

Thus, H + W = Hacold beaten by William. 
_L means capture of a town, fortress, castle, etc. 

x means a battle, the result of which is either not decisive, or unimportant. Sometimes this sign appears in colours. 
A means privateers and prizes. 

Coloured lines mean the essential strategic marches of an army, the direction being indicated by arrow-heads. Movements 
of an army in their own uninvaded country are not given, or very vaguely. Thus (map No. 10) Philip's move from France 
into (modern) Belgium is not commenced from where he really started (i.e. Paris), but nearer the Flanders frontier, his move- 
ments in his own undisturbed country being unimportant. Even so with various lines indicating English troops sailing from 
England. Such lines often start from a point in the sea, when it is immaterial to show from which harbour or harbours 
the troops started. 

The strategic lines on land are always correctly rendering the actual main routes covered by armies or discoverers, 
together with the dates. Exceptions can easily be recognised by the neat form of the coloured line merely indicating generally 
the direction taken by an army. 

The strategic lines on sea are, of course, not nautically correct, which, given the scales of the maps, would be impossible. 
Nor is it in any way necessary, the direction of the fleet being the only really relevant element for the purposes of this 

The red colour always indicates the English, or their allies ; the blue colour indicating the adversaries of England or 
Great Britain. 

Small coloured arrows indicate harassing expeditions. 

Broken red or blue lines ( > >) mean retreat after a defeat. The dates are written in the sequence of years, 

months, and their days. So that 98. 8. 1 means the first of August 1798, the century being indicated once for ever in the title 
of and on the map. 98.8 would mean the month of August, 1798. The years of the first decade of a century are frequently 
written 03, 04, 05, etc. 

The abbreviations of the names of generals, admirals, etc., are given in alphabetical order to each map where 
they occur. 


Map No. 16, under "Explanation," read "Clans," inatead of "Glans." 


THE Celts first immigrated into the British Isles about the sixth century B.C. ; more especially the Cornovii, Dumnonii, 
Trinovantes, Cenimagni, Ordovices, Novantce, Caledonii. Other Celt tribes (entered on the map in blue) arrived later. 
The Volcse, in North Germany, migrated into France in the fourth century B.C. The Germanic tribes, Danes, Angles, 
Jutes, Saxons, invaded the British Isles, as a rule, by entering the mouths of the rivers. The dates of their first 
immigration are given in the map. 

To face Map 1. 



THIS map contains the latest information about Roman Britain. The two provinces into which the country was divided by the 
Emperor Septimius Severus in 197 A.D. could not be indicated on the map owing to our ignorance about their 
boundaries. Later divisions of Britain under Diocletian into four and even five provinces, are likewise too insufficiently 
known to us to admit of being represented cartographically. As to the routes of Caesar's two expeditions into Britain 
(55 and 54 B.C.) we are still in the dark, in spite of three centuries' erudite controversy. Ctesar started probably from 
Boulogne (then Gessoriacum), possibly from Wissant, near Boulogne. 

To face Map 2. 

Keictts Atlas o EnlishJstm-y 


Scale 1:4.OOO.OOO 

London, Macmlllan.* Co. iteL 


THE ever-shifting boundaries of the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and earldoms, and of the ethnographical divisions, are not given, 
because it is impossible to give them both correctly and for any length of time. The physical features are indicated 
with regard to forests and marshes ; so also are most of the places of historic interest. William the Conqueror's 
profoundly strategical march on London, by which he cut off the town from all sides before entering it, is given. 
The red line representing William's crossing the Channel starts a little too much to the south. 

The student's attention is called to the striking fact, that while several rivers, notably the Thames, the Tweed, the 
Ribble (see map No. 4), and others were readily chosen as boundaries for kingdoms in Anglo-Saxon times, as for shires in 
post-Norman England, the Severn River never formed a boundary either to kingdoms or to shires. 

To face Map 3. 

Reich's AUas of English Hi a tory 



CENTURY A. D. TO 1066 

Scale 1:3.700.000 

Lon.don,MacmillajtA('o. Ltd. 

KeJch's Atla. n of Euftlia h Ria lo ry 



IN 879 A.D. 
Scale 1-.4.OOO.OOO 

Danish. 4* Worse. Territory 
CU Celtic, Territory 


LA , Umi.Uu|(loJ 



P *MoWls ^''u'edesMv^.j^ 

"//on. mrphestet' 1 ' S u 8 s R ^ ^'Jo f 

Lon.d.on,Ma.cmaian.fcCo .ltd. 


Literal extension of the text in Domesday Book. 

20b, COLUMN 1, \ 


IN BURGO PEVENESEL T.R.E. fuerunt xxiiii burgenses 
in dominio regis et reddebant de gablo xiiii solidos et vi denarios. 
De theloneo xx solidos. De porfcu xxxv solidos. De pastura 
5 vii solidos et iii denarios. 

presbiter presbiter 

Episcopus de Cicestre habebat v burgenses. Edmer xv. Ormer v. 
Doda iii. 

Quando comes de Moritonio recepit nisi xxvii burgenses. 
Modo habet ipse in dominio Ix burgenses reddentes xxxix 
10 solidos de gablo. Theloneum iiii librae. Moneta xx solidi. 

Monachi de Moritonio viii burgenses de Ixvi denariis. 

Gislebertus i burgensem de xx denariis. Willelmus de Cahainges 

ii burgenses de ii solidis. Boselinus v de ii solidis. Willelmus 

iiii de ii solidis. Ansfridus iiii de ii solidis. Giroldus ii de 
15 vi solidis. Ansgotus iii de xii denariis. Bernardus ii de 

vii denariis. Radulfus ii de xii denariis. Alanus vi de iiii 

solidis. Radulfus iii de Ivi denariis. Azelinus iii de iiii 

solidis. Ipse tenet unam domum de xxxii denariis et parum terra; 

de iii solidis. Walterius ii burgenses de xvi denariis. Rogerius 
20 ii de xii denariis. Hugo i de viii denariis. 

Unum inolinum habet comes de xx solidis. Aluredus habet de herbagio 
xv solidos et iiii denarios. 


Comes de Moritonio tenet in dominio BORNE. Rex E. 

25 tenuit. Ibi xlvi hidse fuerunt et sunt. Terra est xxviii carucarum. 


In dominio sunt iiii carucse et Ixviii villani et iii bordarii cum xxviii 
carucis. Ibi i molinus de v solidis et xvi salin; de iiii libris 
et xl denariis et xxv acra; prati. De pastura vi libra. 

De terra hujus Manerii sunt ii hidas et una virga in rapo de Hastinges. 

30 De eadem terra tenet Willelmus i hidam. Aluredus i hidam. Custodes 

castelli ii hidas. Rogerius iii virgas. 

In dominio i caruca et dimidia et ii villani et vi bordarii cum dimidia caruca. 

T.R.E. reddebant firmam unius noctis. Quando comes recepit xxx 

libras. Modo dominiutn ejus xl libras. Hominum ejus Ixvii solidos. 

35 Ipse comes tenet in dominio BEDDINGHA M . 

Rex E. tenuit. Tune se defendebat pro Iii hidis et dimidia. Modo 

pro 1 hidis. Una hida et dimidia et dimidia virga sunt in Rapo de Hastinges. 

Terra est xxxiii carucarum. In dominio sunt iiii carucae et Ixviii villani 

et vi bordarii cum xxxiiii carucis. Ibi v servi et iiii salinse de xl 
40 denariis et 1 acra prati et silva xxx porcorum de pasnagio. De herbagio 

xxxv solidos. 

De terra hujus Manerii tenet Godefridus iiii hidas. Gislebertus i hidam 

et dimidiam. In dominio habent iii carucas et dimidiam et xv bordarios cum dimidia caruca 

et unum molinum de viii solidis. 

45 T.R.E. reddebant firmam unius noctis. Quando comes recepit xx libras. 
Modo xxx libras quod habet comes. Quod homines vi libras. 

Walterius tenet de comite ES HALLE. Duo liberi homines tenuerunt 

et quolibet ire potuerunt. Tune et modo se defendebat pro iii hidis. Terra est iii carucarum. 

In dominio est una caruca cum uno villano et viii bordariis qui habent i carucam. 

Literal translation of preceding text. 



IN THE BOROUGH OF PEVENESEL (now Pevensey), in the time of King Edward, there were 24 burgesses in the 
King's demesne and they returned for rent 14 shillings and 6 pence. For toll 20 shillings. For harbour dues 
35 shillings. For pasture 7 shillings and 3 pence. 

The Bishop of Chichester had 5 burgesses. Edmer, a priest, 15. Ormer, a priest, 5. Doda, a priest, 3. * 

When the Earl of Mortain received it there were only 27 burgesses. Now he himself has in demesne 60 
burgesses returning 39 shillings for rent. Toll 4. Mint 20 shillings. 

The Monks of Mortain have 8 burgesses of 66 pence. Sheriff Gilbert 1 burgess of 20 pence. William de 
Cahainges 2 burgesses of 2 shillings. Boselire 5 of 2 shillings. William 4 of 2 shillings. Ansfrid 4 of 2 
shillings. Girold 2 of 6 shillings. Ansgot 3 of 12 pence. Bernard 2 of 7 pence. Ralph 2 of 12 pence. Alan 
6 of 4 shillings. Ralph 3 of 56 pence. Azeline 3 of 4 shillings. He himself holds one house of 32 pence and a 
little land of 3 shillings. Walter 2 burgesses of 16 pence. Roger 2 of 12 pence. Hugh 1 of 8 pence. 

The Earl has a mill of 20 shillings. Alured has 15 shillings and 4 pence of herbage. 

IN BORNE (now Eastbourne) HUNDRED. 

The Earl of Mortain holds in demesne BORNE (see map). King Edward held it. There were, and are, 46 
hides. There is land for 28 ploughs. In demesne are 4 ploughs, and 68 villeins and 3 bordars with 28 
ploughs. There is one mill of 5 shillings and 16 salterns of 4 and 40 pence, and 25 acres of meadow. Of 
pasture 6. 

Of the land of this manor 2 hides and one rod are in the rape of Hastings. 

Of this same land William holds 1 hide. Alured 1 hide. The Warders of the Castle 2 hides. Roger, a 
clerk, 3 rods. 

In demesne is 1 plough and a half, and 2 villeins and 6 bordars with half a plough. In the time of King 
Edward they rendered one night's entertainment. When the Earl received it it was worth 30. Now his 
demesne is worth 40. His men's 67 shillings. 


The Earl himself holds in demesne BEDDINGHAM (see map). King Edward held it. It then vouched for 52 
hides and a half. Now for 50 hides. One hide and a half and half a rod are in the rape of Hastings. There is 
land for 33 ploughs. In demesne are 4 ploughs and 68 villeins, and 6 bordars with 34 ploughs. There are 5 
serfs and 4 salterns of 40 pence, and 50 acres of meadow and wood for pannage for 30 hogs. For herbage 35 

Of the land of this manor Godfrey holds 4 hides. Gilbert 1 hide and a half. In demesne they have 3 
ploughs and a half, and 15 bordars with half a plough, and one mill of 8 shillings. 

In the time of King Edward it rendered one night's entertainment. When the Earl received it it was 
worth 20. Now what the Earl has 30. What his men 6. 

Walter holds of the Earl ESHALLE (Asham in Beddingham). Two freemen held it, and could go where 
they pleased. Then, and now, it vouched for 3 hides. There is land for 3 ploughs. In demesne is one plough 
with one villein, and 8 bordars who have 1 plough. 

NOTE. Compare Sussex in Map No. 8. 

To Jace Map 5 

Rpjch's AlJin. of English History 

.j,..s Ghent 
C o m t e of x'" 


.V /w 

o Arras 


, . 

ChuJ mis 
* o i * 

S r .' e of Bourboi 

f omte of the Marche 


IN 1154. 

A u v (> r o 11 ( 

Scale i: 5.5OO.OOO 

lixplaiiation : 


CH3 Domain oftfif king offrance 
I - I fiefs or the crown offrtmce 
Ecclesiastical Domain 


te of Touloii.s 

of Navarre 

of Ba.rreloue 


London, Macraillnji *. Co. Lid 

Wagner X. ~Drbc* Goog' E tnN LTpir 

Reich's Atlas of English History 

S" e of Boiu-bon 

orate of theMarche 


1216- 1272 


Vic. of Limoges 


Explana t ion : 
!ngUsh possessions 
I 1 Domain of the Jtxruj of France. 
I I Fiefs of the crown, of France 
' :-. 1 Bc&esiastical lordships 


of Toulous e 

/ Kingdom 
/of Navarre. 

London, Macmillajvi. Co. Ltd. 



1203-1205. Conquest Of Normandy and PoitOU. Philip Augustus II. , King of France (P., on the map), desirous 
of reconquering Normandy, then still in the hand of John, King of England, directed in 1203 his first efforts to 
the capture of the Chateau-Gaillard, the key to Rouen, one of the most elaborately and ingeniously fortified castles of 
the Middle Ages. The siege lasted from September, 1203, to March, 1204, and constitutes one of the most remarkable 
military feats of that epoch. The castle was heroically defended by Roger de Lascy and a handful of gallant knights. 
Philip himself then advanced on Caen, his generals ravaging Pontorson and Avranches before joining him at Caen. 
Rouen, Verneuil, and Arques had combined to resist Philip, John having given to those towns privileges and practical 
independence such as they could not hope for under Philip. However, John helped them nowise, Philip's money 
bribed the chief leaders, and so the three towns too surrendered. In the twelve months ending summer of 1205, Philip 
also reconquered Poitou and the Saintonge (north and south of the lower Charente River), except La Rochelle. 

1213. First Flemish Campaign. John succeeded in bringing together a formidable alliance against Philip, consisting of 

Renaud, Count of Boulogne, Ferrand (F., on the map), Count of Flanders, Otto, Emperor of Germany, and very many 
towns and barons from Lorraine, Holland, and the countries between the Meuse and the Rhine. Philip moved, in 
May, 1213, both by land, taking Cassel, Ypres, Bruges, and besieging Ghent, and by sea, with the intention of 
invading England. John, or rather his natural brother, William of Salisbury, signally defeated Philip's fleet at 
Damme, May, 1213, and so frustrated Philip's designs on England. Philip, indignant at the loss of his fleet, left Ghent, 
marched on Damme, and forced his enemies to repair to the isle of Walcheren. 

Daring the winter of 1213 and the spring of 1214, Philip's armies devastated the districts indicated by blue chains, and 
Ferrand harassed the towns and villages situated along the chain in red. Philip, who had no command of the sea, 
found it exceedingly difficult to hold his own in Flanders ; so that he finally (spring 1214) possessed only Douai and 
Cassel. Ferrand, on the other hand, received men and money from John almost uninterruptedly. John wanted 
to prevail upon his allies to strike a decisive blow at Philip, and to reduce the French kings to their original 
insignificance. The plan of the campaign was to take Philip between two armies one, that of the allies, marching from 
the north-east of modern France ; the other, under John himself, marching from the south-west, across the Loire River, 
both on Paris. Everything depended on the prompt, simultaneous action of both armies. Herein lay the great, if not 
insuperable difficulty. The allies were not well organised, nor prompted by the same motives ; John had first to 
reconquer the districts in Poitou through which he was to march. 

1214. Campaign Of Roehe-au-Moine. .John leaves Portsmouth in February, 1214, lands at La Rochelle, and, moving 

rapidly through the Saintonge, western Poitou, the Angoumois, and the Limousin, succeeds in bringing back to his 
service many of the fickle Aquitaine barons. Philip, on learning John's movements, dashes down from Paris, through 
Chinon, Loudun, as far as Chatellerault, intending to cut off John from La Rochelle. John, however, retreats, by 
Cognac and Saintes, to La Reole (April, 1214), and so gains his communication with the sea. Philip, unwilling to go 
after John, returns, after visiting or punishing Bressuire, Thouars, Cholet, and Chateauroux, northward to the 
campaign of Bouvines (see lower down), leaving his son Louis (L., on the map) behind him to intercept John. The 
King of England now (April, 1214) rapidly advances northward, captures Mervent and Vouvant, two of the most 
formidable feudal castles. John passes the Loire River at Ancenis in June, 1214, and appears on June 17, 1214, 
before Angers, which he occupies. Then he lays siege to the castle of Roche-au-Moine, which, to reserve a safe line of 
retreat, he cannot leave behind him uncaptured. Louis, Philip's son, in spite of John's superiority in numbers, 
attacked (July 2, 1214) the English army in front of Roche-au-Moine, and completely dispersed it. John fled to 
La Rochelle, leaving Louis free to advance southward, and to prevail upon the barons to rejoin Philip. The defeat 
of Roche-au-Moine completely foiled the whole plan of campaign against Philip. 

Campaign Of Bouvines. Emperor Otto (0., on the map) arrived, towards the end of July, 1214, near Valenciennes with about 
1214. 80,000 men, of whom many English under William of Salisbury ; Philip was then, with about 25,000 men, at Peronne. 
Philip, with the intention of cutting off Otto from help from England or Holland, advanced, not by Carnbrai (which 
was, moreover, an Imperial town), but by Douai on Tournay ; Otto advancing on Mortagne. At that time, the 
district between Tournay and Lille was swampy, poorly inhabited, and scarcely manageable for any army, the only 
accessible plateau being that of Bouvines. Philip, learning the advance of the Imperialists from Mortagne, wanted to 
retreat to Lille ; however, Otto, after feigning a march on Tournay, veered to the left and attacked Philip at 
Bouvines, on the 27th of July, 1214. In that memorable battle the allies were completely routed, the French 
monarchy firmly established, King John's reliance on foreign allies definitively shattered, and thus the power of the 
English people against their King increased. ' The defeat at Bouvines was the necessary prelude to John's granting 
Magna Charta. 

To face Map 10. 

KetrU's ALliis of English Hist ory 


E N G 




mien Goumay 






a i it 

\ If Mans 

Roche -an Mbinf 




OF KING JOHN 1203-1214 

Scale 1: 4.5OO.OOO 

O ZO 4O 60 _ 1OO 


> (Ttdtellfrtuilt 

Otateauromr v 





S, ^n 

London,MaxMtriUaitACo. Ltd. 


KING EDWARD I. of England wanted to unite Scotland, Wales, and England under one ABBREVIATIONS. 

rule, thus making of what is now called Great Britain, a political island, instead A D _ gir Archibald Douglas Regent 
of leaving it, as it had been up to his time, and was for many a generation after O f Scotland. 

his death, an island in the physical sense only. By thus anticipating the future B. Robert the Bruce, 
course of British history, Edward necessarily forced and violated many an interest E. = Edward L 
and sentiment, but, historically speaking, he cannot be reproached with mere Ell = Edward if. W 
wanton cruelty, or land-greed. p. = Pembroke (English). 

.___ _, , , _ , T _ T . i o .LI ii_ T> -i TIT i i cii- T W. = William Wallace, t 

1296. Edward I. and Warrenne invade Scotland by Berwick, Edinburgh, Stirling, Wn< _ warrenne (English). 
Dunottar Castle, advancing into Banff, and returning to Berwick. This 

chevauchee or raid through Scotland, together with wholesale depossession of Scots nobles, seemed to Edward I. a 
1297. sufficient measure for securing the conquest of the country. However, William Wallace, powerfully endowed in body 
as well as mind, and a very skilful general, signally defeated Warrenne at Cambushkenneth, also called the battle of 
Stirling, September, 1297, whereupon Wallace marched on Berwick, and made a raid into England. 

1298. Edward I. could not leave that unavenged, and accordingly in 1298 he advanced with a very large army by Roxburgh, 
Lauder, and Kirkliston on Edinburgh, and met and worsted Wallace at Falkirk, in July, 1298. Lack of provisions 
forced Edward to return. 

1303. Amongst various further invasions of Scotland, Edward led more particularly one in 1303, by Roxburgh, Edinburgh, 
Stirling, Dundee, Montrose, Brechin Castle, Aberdeen, into Banff, and returned by Kildrummy Castle to Dunfermline, 
dealing very sternly with the Scotch. Edward's severities did not, however, break the spirit of the mass of the Scots, 
although many of the nobles played false both to their people and the English King. After the capture of Wallace, by 

1305. the treacherousness of another Scot, in 1305, a new and even more formidable champion of the Scots arose, Robert the 

1306. Bruce. He invaded first Nithsdale, from Dumfries, but was soon closely followed by Pembroke, and driven into the 
western mountains. There, amidst privations and hairbreadth escapes of the most tragic character, he contrived to 

1307. reach Dunaverty Castle, whence he repaired to the Isle of Rathlin. Nothing daunted, he landed first at Brodick 
Castle, in the Isle of Arran, and then on the coast of Carrick, at Turnberry Castle, defeated Pembroke at London Hill, 
raided Galloway, and then betaking himself to the north, he roused the people to renewed resistance, so that 
Edward I. prepared a new war of conquest. Death, at Burgh-on-Sands, prevented Edward I. from reconquering 
Scotland, which Bruce's ceaseless and well-directed activity had practically liberated, especially through his military 

1308. and diplomatic activity in 1308 all through Mar and Angus. One English stronghold in Scotland after the other 
fell into the possession of Bruce, thus in 1313 he occupied both Perth and Edinburgh, in 1314 even Stirling Castle, 
the strongest English fortress in Scotland. 

1314. Edward II. at the head of a huge army, in order to recover Scotland, invaded the country by Berwick, Dunbar, 

Edinburgh, but at Bannockburn Bruce defeated him completely, June 24, 1314, thereby placing Scotch independence 

1318. on a firm basis. In the year 1318, Bruce succeeded in recapturing the important town and castle of Berwick, after 

1322. which he raided as usual the northern counties of England. Renewed attempts of Edward II., especially that of 1322 

(roughly indicated on map), to raid Scotland, proved inefficient. 

1332. With the connivance of Edward III. of England, Edward Baliol, in 1332 arrived with an army on the coast of Fifeshire, 

and completely defeated his opponents at Dupplin on August 11. In September, Baliol was crowned King at Scone, 

recognising, however, the suzerainty of Edward III., to whom he also offered Berwick. The Regent of Scotland, 

1333. Sir Archibald Douglas, who opposed Baliol and defeated him, attempted in 1333 to raise the siege of Berwick by the 

English, but was signally defeated by them and slain at Halidon Hill, on July 20. 

1346. David II., King of Scotland and ally of France, raided Northern England, but was utterly defeated at Nevill's Cross on 
October 17, and taken captive. Yet, although Edward III. had, less than two months previously, utterly defeated 
the French at Crecy, and was thus victorious over both his enemies, Scotland in the end remained an independent 
kingdom, and the victory of Nevill's Cross had as little lasting effect as that of Crecy. In fact, it was easier for the 
then English Kings to proceed victoriously in populous France than in under-populated Scotland. Henry V. (see Map 
No. 15), at any rate, was able to secure great successes in France, which neither himself nor his predecessors were 
enabled to obtain in Scotland. In Scotland, the poverty of the country and the shocking condition of the few roads 
compelled the English to keep to the sea-coast, where they could draw supplies from English vessels. In richer and 
more accessible France, on the other hand, military movements were much easier. In the case of Scotland as well as 
in that of France, there was, however, one main circumstance militating against lasting success on the part of the 
English. In France, the English could never possess themselves of Brittany, which formed, both by its situation 
and its configuration, the connecting and indispensable land-link between Normandy and Guienne, and an excellent 
naval basis for England. In Scotland, the English were in the middle ages never able to possess themselves of the 
Highlands, as they were in 1654 (see Map No. 25) and in 1745 (see Map No. 33). 

By the above considerations it is not meant to say that other, such as personal or purely political causes did not 
contribute to the shaping of events ; here, however, we deal merely with the influence of geographical factors. In 
both Brittany and the Highlands, natural obstacles were so formidable as to render their conquest almost 
impossible. The French King, too, had to content himself (end of the fifteenth century) with acqxiiring Brittany by 
treaty, rather than by arms. 

To face Map 12. 

ReicKs At l;i s of English History 

1296 - 1346 

London, Macmillan & Co. Ltd. 

""""- ' r"nfc&" 

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r<oiuloit,Macinillan_feCo. Ltd . 


PART I. FIRST MAP, 1338-1396 

28. France. Death of Charles IV., he is succeeded by Philip VI. of Valois. ABBREVIATIONS. 

9-1331.-Edward III. of England does homage for his lands in France. A. = Duc d . Alljou . (P^F^) 

1337. The French promise to help the Scots against England 5:. = Charles ' Bl<rf. 

<oorr .4000 mi. T-. , r, Bn - = Bahuchet, French Admiral 

13J7-1338. The French fleet attacks Portsmouth and Southampton B - p - = Blfl ck Prince. 

The English under Sir Walter Manny attack Cadsand and defeat Sir Guv of n h> = Jf Chan . do8 . E ns<* General, 

jlcindGrs ~~ ijuesciin. 

Truce between England and Scotland. Edward goes in search of allies to Cologne G - ' = Sir p u y of Flanders. 
via Antwerp, then on to Coblentz, where he meets the Duke of Bavaria (Emperor S r 4- = ^ railli ' Cap** 1 de Bu <*- 
of Germany). V- T - = ^. enr y f T 8t * 1 2* re - 

J. = King John II. of Prance. 

1339. Edward goes to Brabant, then marches southward across the Oise River and goes to J>M- = Je Rrittf e Montfort> Dukc of 

St. Quentin hoping for battle with Philip who comes from Amiens. Philip, K. = Kiriat, FVench Admiral 

however, refuses battle and retires, and Edward returns via Avesnes into Brabant M. = Sir Walter Manny. 

1340. Edward bears the arms of France and calls himself King thereof. P.' ^ Phnfpvi N , KTng of Franc*. 

1340. June. -English fleet from Thames under Edward to Sluys ; sea battle. Edward K?' = S" 1 I^be^Knoiles leader of 

victorious over French admirals aided by Genoese ships lands and goes to "Companies," and later on 

Ghent, through Oudenarde to Tournay, which he besieges. Philip at Arras T English General, 

where he is joined by the Duke of Bohemia ; they march to Tournay. S* = Earl of Salisbury' 

1340-1341. Truce of Esplechin, Edward returns to England. Duke of Normandy and X; = CabezadeVaca.Spanish Admiral. 

Charles of Blois from Angers through Ancenis to Nantes, which they take. VL =Jea ' ''enne, French Admiral. 
Thence to Rennes, which they also take, and on to Hennebon, which they besiege. 

1342. Edward supports the claim of John de Montfort to the duchy of Brittany, and sends Sir Walter Manny with a fleet 

to assist the Countess Joan of Montfort, who is in Hennebon. The siege is raised. 
1343. Jan. Truce of Malstroit. 

1346. Edward learns that Aiguillon, one of his principal fortresses in Guienne, is besieged since April by a large host of 
French knights and men. To save that important place, Edward sails from Southampton, but is driven by contrary 
winds to the coast of Cornwall. Thence, at the advice of Godfrey de Harcourt, he sets sail for Normandy with the 
double intention of invading the north of France so as to force the French King to evacuate Guienne, and to join his 
(Edward's) Flemish allies who, being on the Escaut River, were three times nearer to him than Guienne. Edward lands 
at Cape La Hougue, takes number of Norman towns on his march, touches Rouen, but finding the right bank of the 
Seine River guarded by Philip, and the bridges removed, Edward advances on the left bank of the river as far as 
Poissy. Thence by the ford of Blanchetache (Blanchetague) to Crecy, Philip being unable to prevent Edward's 
crossing the Somme, or to place Edward between the coast held by the French and the Somme River. The Flemish 
had indeed besieged Bethune in August, but withdrew before the battle of Crecy. Dates of marches see on the map. 
Battle of Crecy : complete and glorious victory of Edward, or rather the Black Prince, whatever the details of the 
fight, still very imperfectly known, may have been. Philip retreats to Paris ; Edward advances on Calais, which, in 

1347. 1347, he takes, thereby gaining a strong footing near to his natural allies, the Flemish. 

1347. Sept. Truce with Philip. 

1349. Black Death. 

1350. Philip dies and is succeeded by John II. 

1350. Oct. Edward's great naval victory over Spanish sailors off Sandwich. 

1355. Several attempts at peace having been frustrated by the refusal of the French King to recognise the independence of 
Guienne as an English dominion without any feudal tie with France, Edward and the Black Prince prepared a double 
invasion of France. At first Edward meant to advance through Normandy, where Charles, King of Navarre, had large 
estates and important strategic positions, which he promised to place at the disposal of Edward. However, King 
John of France succeeded in dissuading Charles from an alliance with England, and accordingly Edward entered 
France by Calais, Hesdin, in the direction of Amiens. A Scotch invasion in the north of England forced Edward to 
give up his French campaign and to return to England by Calais. The Black Prince, on the other hand, sailed from 
Plymouth to Bordeaux, promised his greedy Gascon followers free booty, and led them through Toulouse to the south- 
east portion of France, sacking towns and spreading terror. For the next year the Black Prince promised his 
followers even richer booty in the direction of Limoges, Berri, and the Loire districts. 

1356. Accordingly, in August, 1356, the Black Prince, starting from Bergerac advanced through BrantSme, Lussac, Issoudun to 
Vierzon, on the Cher River, sacking towns, devastating the country, and threatening Orleans. Dates of marches see on 
map. When at Vierzon he learned that King John of France was coming to meet him, from Chartres. The Prince, 
on account of his inferiority in numbers, abandoned his plans on Orleans, and turned towards Romorantin. John 
intended to cut off the Black Prince from the latter's line of communication towards Bordeaux. However, as the 
dates on the map show, the Prince contrived, although with great difficulty, to be always in advance of the French 
army. Perhaps the most serious difficulty of the Prince was the requisitioning of food, and John might have succeeded, 
by rapid movements cutting off the English from their base, to starve them out, if not to beat them. John, in his 
reckless haughtiness, demanded the personal surrender of the Prince. This was of course refused, and the battle of 

1356. Poitiers, or rather Maupertuis (a farm, now called La Cardinerie), was fought ; it was one of the most glorious military 
feats, not only of the English, but of any other nation, in the Middle Ages. John and very many French nobles were 
made captive. The Prince returned to Bordeaux. 

1359. Edward, attempting to conquer the north of France, marched at the head of a considerable army from Calais to Rheims, 
into Burgundy, towards Paris, and encamps outside. 

1360. Treaty of Bre"tigny, or the Great Peace. 

1364. Du Guesclin's victory at Cocherel ; his adversaries were mostly Frenchmen, May 1364. 

Battle of Auray, in Brittany, where Du Guesclin coming from Nantes was defeated, September 1364. 
1370. Sack of Limoges by Black Prince. Du Guesclin's victory at Pontvallain, near Tours. 
1373. John of Gaunt's disastrous expedition from Calais to Bordeaux. Naval combats off Brest. 

1374. Loss of all French possessions except Calais, Bordeaux, and Bayonne, indicated by the blue routes of Du Guesclin and 
the Due d'Anjou in 1374 and 1377 in Gascony, where they took most of the English fortresses and castles. 

1382. NOV. Charles VI. of France defeats Flemish at Roosbeke, thereby gaining lost prestige over his own towns, especially 
Rouen, Paris, which threatened, together with the Jacquerie, to ruin French royalty. 

1367. Black Prince from Bordeaux goes to help Pedro of Castile (The Cruel). Marches through Roncesvalles valley into 
Alava, by Logrono to Navarete. Battle and victory of Black Prince. 

To face Map 14. 

Reich's Atlas of English History 



1338 to 1396 
Scale 1:7.000.000 


London,MacmiIlaiiCo. Ltd. 

WagnertDeoes GeogiEstabT Leips 



1396. Richard II. marries Isabella of France, and a truce of twenty-five years is made. ABBREVIATIONS 

411 -Henry IV^ of England sends troops to help the Duke of Burgundy. A =Conn6table d , Albr ^ ^^ 
1412. Henry IV., changing sides, sends an army to help the Orleanists, under his second Commander at Agincourt. 

son, Clarence, who ravages Normandy and Maine. "Y e o!l!l ord> 

or, = Uuke of Unttany. 

1415. Henry V. of England sails from Southampton to Portsmouth, lands, August 14, Bu< = Constable de Buchan, French 

at Harfleur, which he besieges and takes, September 22, and starting on October 8,' c = Chari^l * King of France 

advances to Montvilliers, Goderville, Fecamp, Cany, St. Valery en Caux, Treport, Cn. = Duke of '' Clarence, Henry's 
harassed by the French. Henry, who had collected provisions for eight days brother, 

only, and lost over one half of his men by disease, wanted to reach Calais, f ' = cSofClermont 

although his real object ought to have been to secure Normandy as a base for D.' = Dauphin Charles (later Charles 
the conquest of France. The French held the northern banks of the Somme VII.). 

River, and so Henry was obliged to march on the southern bank in search of 2 U ' Z e- un T oi v!' F I enc ^. Gener!tl - 

a ford, which he finally found at Bethencourt. The French now wrongly gave H. = Henry V.^Klng of England. 

up their attempt to wear him out, and losing touch with him, marched through J.' = Joan of Arc. 

Bapaume and St. Pol, to Agincourt. Their army was four times as numerous as i B - = *?** ^ urea V' 

that of Henry. : '' Kynel. 

mu Tn u f TT ) j ji R. = Connetable de Richemont. 

1 he French refusing Henry's terms, there is a battle m which the English are S. = Earl of Salisbury, 

victorious : Henry returns by Calais to England. Sh. = Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury. 

1416. Henry allies himself with John, Duke of Burgundy. 

1417. Henry now meant to conquer Normandy, so as to have a solid base for the conquest of France. He therefore invades 

Normandy, taking Caen (after most heroic resistance of the people of Caen), Bayeux, Lisieux (in 1417), Argentan, 

Verneuil, Alen9on, Falaise (1418), Cherbourg (1418, October 1), Rouen (1419, January 19). Allied with Philip, 

Duke of Burgundy, Henry marched on Rouen from Falaise, by Louviers, Pt. de 1'Arche, to get the good crossing 

over the Seine. 

Marches towards Paris, capturing many towns on his march. 
1420. Treaty of Troyes. 
1421. Henry and Catherine return to England. 

Scots meet their ally the Dauphin at Rochelle, thence to Bauge 1 , where Clarence is defeated and killed ; besiege 

Alenpon, but retire to Dreux. 

Dauphin from Sable to Chartres crosses Somme at Abbeville and meets Burgundy at Montreuil. Falls back on the 

Loire to Amboise, thence to Nevers, La Charite, and Cosne, which he besieges. 

Henry crosses from Dover to Calais, thence to Beauvais, Mantes, and Dreux to Beaugency in quest of the Dauphin. 

1422. Henry marches to Orleans, Nemours, Villeneuve, Meaux, which he besieges and takes ; to Paris and Senlis, thence to 
Corbeil and Melun, where he falls ill and dies, at Vincennes, near Paris. Bedford from Corbeil to Cosne, at Henry's 

Charles VII. from Gien attacks Crevant on Yonne. English from Auxerre to Crevant. Battle : English victory, 
securing communication with Burgundy ; victors under Count of Aumale raid as far as Avranches and Saint L6. 

1424. Peace with Scotland. 

Bedford from Evreux to Damville, advances to Verneuil, where he defeats the French and secures communication 
between England and Brittany, thus throwing back the French south of the Loire River. 

1428. Salisbury from Paris to Rambouillet, Nogent-le-Roi (le Rotrou ?), Janville, past Orleans to Beaugency, thence to 
Chateauneuf and Orleans, which he besieges, but soon after dies, killed by a shot from the besieged. Salisbury had 
occupied both Jargeau, Meung, and Beaugency, thus securing all the crossings. Count of Clermont from Blois 
marches to capture Fastolf's convoy for the relief of Orleans' besiegers, but is defeated by Sir John Fastolf, who 
comes from Etampes, at the " Battle of Herrings," near Janville (at Rouvray St. Denis), 1429, February 12. 

1429. Joan of Arc from Chinon to Poitiers and thence to Blois, whence she goes with Dunois from south side into Orleans to 
the relief of the town, which she succeeds in provisioning despite the English, and directs from within the defence of 
Orleans, and by taking the castle, Les Tournelles, relieves it, 1429, May 7. She then captures Jargeau, June 11, 
where the Earl of Suffolk is captured, and Meung. (See above. ) Talbot and Fastolf from Beaugency are defeated 
by the French Joan and Dunois at Coinces, near Patay, June 18, and retreat to Etampes. Joan from Patay to 
Gien, Auxerre, Troyes, Chalons, to Rheims, where Charles VII. is crowned, 1429, July 17 (a Sunday). Charles to 
Soissons, Laon, Coulommiers, Provins, Bray. Retires towards Coulommiers, skirmish at Dammartin (with Bedford). 
Cardinal Beaufort from Paris to Corbeil and Melun, to intercept the southward march of the French. 
Joan of Arc from Compiegne fails in her assault on Paris, and retreats southward on the Loire, losing her prestige 
with the French army. 

1430. Joan escapes from French Court to Lagny-sur-Marne, close to Paris, and makes her way to Compiegne, but is taken 
captive by Burgundy. 
Henry VI. of England crosses to France. 
Champagne and the basin of the Oise almost entirely recovered by the French. 

1431. Joan tried and burnt at Rouen, May 31. 

The same year, Henry is crowned by Beaufort at Paris. 
1435. Congress of Arras. The English refuse conditions of peace. 

Duke of Burgundy joins France, renouncing the English Alliance. 


I486. Sir Thomas Beaumont from Paris is defeated near Epinay, and the English are expelled from Paris. (Not on map.) 

1437. Constable de Richemont from Gien takes Nemours and Cherny, joins Charles, and besieges Montereau, which surrenders. 
From thence they march into Paris. 

1444. Two years' truce. 

1448-49- English sack Fougeres, 1449, March 24. 

Duke of Brittany and Dunois take Cognac, and advance north, through Brittany, to Mortain, Essey, Alencon, 

Argentan, Coutances, St. L6, La Haye de Puits, Carentan, and Valognes. 

Charles from Chinon to Verneuil, Evreux, Louviers, Vernon, to Rouen, which surrenders. Burgundians, meanwhile, 

are victorious in East Normandy. 

At the end of this year the English held only Honfleur, Bayeux, Caen, and Cherbourg in the north of Normandy. 

1450, Kyriel lands at Cherbourg, and lays siege to Valognes, which he takes, and marches south towards Caen, but is 
defeated and taken prisoner at Formigny. Charles takes Caen, and Bayeux and Cherbourg surrender to Clermont and 

1450. End of British possessions in Normandy. 

1451. Jean Bureau takes St. Foy la Grande, Gensac, La Roche, Chalais. English defeated at Blanquefort, near Bordeaux. 

Dunois attacks Blaye and Bourg, and lays siege to Fronsac. 
June. Bordeaux and Fronsac surrender. 

1452. Gascons appeal to England for help. 

Shrewsbury to Medoc and Bordeaux. Charles from Tours to Angoule'me by Lusignan ; his army pushes on to Chalais, 
Gensac, and Castillon, under Bureau. 
Siege of Castillon. 

1453. Shrewsbury from Bordeaux to Branne and Castillon, where he is defeated and slain, 1453, July. 
Castillon and Bordeaux surrender. Loss of all the English possessions in France except Calais. 

To face Map 15. 

lleich's Atlas of RnglisliHisto: 

_B r i 1 1 a 


1396 to 1453 

10 20 40 <O 8O 1OO 

I-o nil on , M ;i < in i 1 1 an .?- Co. Ltd. 

Wagner*. Debea'Oo|^ Bat&bt- Leipaic. 

Re jell's Atlas of EngliaK Hi story 


Scale 1:2.750.OOO 

O 10 2O 3O* 4O SO 


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CZ3 The Pale 

*' \ Bnunttmy of tJie 4 Prmnnres 
Jfames of families or til tins thus. O'Cahan 
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lleich's Alias of EnglishJiistory 



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Scarcely distitrbed, 
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I I fThcultvnitjed, (i.e. moors, fens, 
moss, forest etc~) 

J ITndttermincA (from, insufficient 



Scale 1:4.OOO.OOO 

ID 20 30 SO <0 70 

Cheshire '\ K_ M3H^> 
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LondouJVIacinlllaii A Co . Ltd . 


1455. May. York, Warwick, and Salisbury march from north to St. Albans. King ABBREVIATIONS. 

Henry VI. from London through Watford to St. Albans. A _ Lord Audley. (L.) 

Yorkist victory. King taken prisoner and peace made. B! = Sir Piers de Breze\ (L.) 

1457. August. French (Sir Piers de Breze) attack Sandwich (possibly at Queen's E ' d Z Edwlrd ofTorlif ' (later Edward 
instigation), but are driven off. IV.). (Y.) 

1459. May. King marches from Leicester to Nottingham and Eccleshall. H. 'Z Henry of Richmond (later King 

Salisbury, marching from Middleham to join Warwick and York at Ludlow, Henry VII.) (L.) 

passes through Newcastle-under-Lyme evades Eccleshall hearing the King is = Quee^M^garet (L 
Sept. there, to Bloreheath, where he meets Audley who came from Leicester. Blore- brother to Warwick. (First Y. 

heath battle. Audley defeated by Salisbury. then L. 1470.) 

Salisbury continues his march to Ludlow, and joins Warwick and York. P. == Earl of Pembroke. (L.) 

King coming from Eccleshall puts them all to flight. York flies north to Ireland ; |- - j$f a j Nevill, Earl of Salisbury, 
Warwick and Salisbury through Exmouth via Guernsey to Calais. father to Warwick. (Y.) 

1460. Jan.-Somerset besieges Calais. So; ~ SM SSfftrt^WMwl* 

Sir John Dinham captures royal ships off Sandwich. (the King Maker). (Y.) 

June. Warwick and Salisbury cross from Calais, through Sandwich to London to We. = Sir Robert Welles. (L.) 
July. Northampton where they meet and defeat the King (Henry VI. ). (York returns WL = gg^^SS'Sf York. (Y.) 

via Redcliff to London.) 

Hearing the King is defeated Margaret flies from Eccleshall through Chester 

and Harlech (Wales) to Scotland. 
Dec. Somerset, Northumberland, and Devon collect large forces at York. 

York and Salisbury march from London towards York, have a slight skirmish at Worksop, and then on to 

Sandall Castle. Somerset, Northumberland, and Devon move to Pontefract, near Wakefield. Battle of Wakefield ; 

Lancastrians victorious. York killed and Salisbury taken prisoner and executed. 

1461. Feb. 1. Wiltshire and Pembroke advance through Wales to Herefordshire, but are met at Mortimer's Cross and 

beaten by Edward who has advanced from Gloucester. 
Feb. 26-27. Edward returns to Gloucester, marches to Burford (near Oxford), meets Warwick and goes to London. 

Queen marches from Scotland through York, Grantham, Stamford, Peterborough, Huntingdon, Royston, Dunstable, 
to St. Albans, where she meets and defeats Warwick who comes from London. King rescued. Queen retreats north 
to Dunstable to save London from being sacked. (Great mistake, she thus missed taking London. ) 
Edward and Warwick march north through Cambridge and Pontefract to Ferrybridge and Towton. Yorkist victories. 
Henry and Queen retreat to Berwick. 

1464. Somerset advances to Hedgeley Moor but is defeated by Montague, who comes from York through Newcastle ; he 
returns to Newcastle, but hearing Somerset has again advanced, meets him at Hexham and again defeats him. 

1465. Henry captured and again imprisoned. 

1469. July. Battle of Edgecote, near Banbury ; rebels who collected unsystematically victorious.' Warwick deserts 
Edward's side, goes to France to mislead Edward, but returns by Kent to London s and, taking advantage of the 
rebels' victory, imprisons Edward ; but latter is shortly released. (Warwick's mistake.) 

1470. Rising in Lincolnshire. Sir Robert Welles marches from Ranby Hawe (near Horncastle), passes near Leicester to 

Edward marching from London through Huntingdon to Stamford defeats Welles at Battle of Losecoatfield. 
Warwick flees to France. 
Sept. Warwick and Clarence land at Dartmouth and Plymouth from Harfleur, thence to London. 

Edward, finding Montague has turned traitor, flies with a few hundred followers from Nottingham through 
Lynn to Holland ; lands, after storms, pirates, at Alkmaar. 

1471. March. Edward, getting assistance from the Duke of Burgundy, lands at Ravenspur (near Spurn Head), thence 
to York, Wakefield, Sandall, Doncaster, Nottingham, Leicester, Coventry, Warwick, Daventry, Northampton, to 
London. Neither Montague at Pontefract, nor John de Vere, Earl of Oxford, in the eastern counties, fall into his 
flank, hence unopposed, and en route gathering strength, especially after Clarence's treachery, who collects soldiers 
for Warwick and sides with Edward. 

Warwick from Coventry by Northampton to Barnet is met and beaten there by Edward, and slain. 
Queen lands at Weymouth, goes to Exeter, Glastonbury, Bath, Bristol, Berkeley, Gloucester, to Tewkesbury. 
Edward marches from Windsor, through Abingdon, Cirencester, Malmesbury, Cheltenham, to Tewkesbury, where 
he outmarches and defeats Margaret, and her son is killed. 
Henry VI. dies. 

1483. Edward IV. dies. 

Edward V. dies in the Tower ; Richard made King. 

1485. Henry of Richmond lands at Milford Haven from Harfleur, marches through Haverfordwest, Cardigan, Machynlleth, 
Newton, Welshpool, Shrewsbury, Newport, Stafford, Lichfield, Tamworth, Atherstone, to Bosworth. Richard marches 
from Nottingham through Leicester to Bosworth, where he is beaten by Henry, and slain. 

To face Map 18. 

Reich's Atlas of English History 


Scale 1:4X)OO.OOO 

o ><> :o 30 o so n 10 



London,Macmillan.ifeCo. Ltd. 

Wainer i Hebes ' Geoft Ks tabl Leipslc 

.Reich's Atlas of Eagiatiglstory 



Scale l:4iOOO.OOO 

20 so to so a> to to 


means Black JfonJts, i. a. 
Senedictines and Cbmiacs 

means Carthusians and 
four onlcrx of friars 

o means Cistercians (white, monks) 

P |2 

T H 

'St'Dogmaels Hereford 

London, MacmillaxiA Co. Ltd. 

Wagner A Debes 'Geof Ertab? Leipuc. 

The Armada. 1587. June. Drake cruising off Portugal (then a Spanish province) did ABBREVIATIONS. 

much damage to the Spanish. A A Archduke Albert (Spanish). 

1588. May. At last the Armada sailed under Medina Sidonia, who was no seaman at all, D. == Drake. 

from Lisbon on May 29, arriving in bay of Ferrol in July, and off the Lizard on py^ ~ sir* Francis Vere. 

July 30 (old date). Philip II. 's plan was, for the Armada to land in the islet of H'. ' = Howard. 

Thanet, so that Parma, from the Spanish Netherlands, might help it. The real Hk. = Hawkins. 

strategic point of attack was, however, not Thanet, but the Isle of Wight. j}^ - HenryJ^of France > ^ ^ 

Moreover, the Spanish had neither pilots nor good sea-charts. Yet, considering miral). 

the astounding naval successes of the Spanish, not only in 1571, at the Battle of N. = John Norris. 

Lepanto, but also later on against the Berber pirates, and quite recently, off P^ s - = Sir Philip Sidney. 

Terceira, in the Azores islands (July 25, 1582, where Cervantes, the poet, fought ; 

a battle so important and famous that Thuanus says of it : " . . . . pugnce, 

toto Oceano maxime omnium, quarum memoria exstat, famosce "), the success of the English admirals is all the more 

glorious. It must be remembered that Flushing was at the disposal of the English, but that, on the other hand, the 

English captains were practically unprovided with ammunition or food for even a week's campaign. Howard 

August, opposed the Armada at Plymouth, but was obliged to bear up for Dover for supplies, on August 5, 1588. The Armada 
crosses over to Boulogne on August 6, to meet Parma, who is at Dunkirk. From Boulogne the Armada proceeds to 
Calais. The English direct fire-ships at the Armada, so that the Spanish fleet disperses off Gravelines and the 
Flanders coast. Drake, Hawkins, Howard, Winter, and Frobisher inflict great harm on the Armada, August 8. 
Armada turns north, little harassed by the English, who were famished and, by stress of wind, returned to Harwich. 
The Armada proceeded round the Orkneys (see Map No. 20) and the Blaskets, after undergoing fearful weather. Then 
to Ballyshannon and Sligo (see Map No. 20), where the native Irish, although themselves Catholics, cruelly massacred 
the starving Spanish. The latter met with a similar fate at Tralee and Dingle (see Map No. 20). An English 
expedition in 1589 to Spain proved a disastrous failure. 

The Continent. Under Henry VIII. the English undertook no great military movements on the Continent. The affair of 
Guinegate (1513) and the siege and capture of Boulogne in 1544 are noteworthy. Under Elizabeth, France as well as 
the Netherlands were agitated by great civil and religious wars, the chief events of which are localised on the map. 
In France, the red circles round Nimes, Millau, &c., indicate the chief Huguenot centres. The parallel lines in 
France, consisting of small lines and dots in red and blue respectively, indicate the chief localities of the religious 
wars (1559 to 1593). In the Netherlands, Philip Sidney's defeat at Zutphen is indicated ; so also Sir Francis Vere's 
action at Newport (Nieuwport) and the share of the English in the siege of Ostend (from 1601, July, to 1602, March) . 
by the Spanish. Altogether the English played a most efficient and honourable part in the military history of the 
revolt of the Dutch Netherlands. The attempts of Elizabeth to obtain a footing in Normandy failed in 1564. 

To face Map 21. 

Reich's AUa.s of English History 



Scale 1 : 6.OOO.OOO 

Lond.on,Macinillan.A Co. Ltd. 

KiMrh's Atliis nf English History 



Scale 1:2.750.000 


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B99 Plantations by Philip and Mcay 
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IJffl Ulster Plantation, bv Jantes 1 
I I jMtrr Plantations tnr James / 
m ' i Boundaries of t fie t Provinces 
Boundaries of the Counties 


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, -ft'^v JR. Onuifili Ouaaaratanf Lisbitrn 

""^PV^f iJ3^S" --, 


London, Macmillan A> Co . Ltd.. 


(The King's movements in red ; the Parliamentary armies' in blue.) 

C. = Cromwell. 

E. = Essex (Parliamentarian). 

F. = Sir Thomas Fairfax and his father 

Ho. = Hopton (Royalist). 
K. = King Charles I. 
H. = Manchester (Parliamentarian). 
N. = Newcastle (Royalist). 
R. = Rupert (Royalist). 
W. = Waller (Parliamentarian). 

1642. King Charles I. starts from Nottingham towards west, where he could count on ABBREVIATIONS, 

best recruiting ground, with idea of swooping down on London. King marches 
to Shrewsbury, avoiding Parliamentary towns. Essex, from Northampton, tries 
to thwart King in the west, near Worcester, but learning that King had out- 
marched him, turns round and gives battle at Edgehill, Oct. 23, where Rupert's 
cavalry worsts Parliamentarians. Essex back to London ; King advances on 
London, by Oxford, but meets, at Turnham Green, London militia, and so gives 
up his design. Oxford becomes King's headquarters. 

1643. King's second plan (a sound one) was: his armies to advance on London on 
three lines at the same time one from Yorkshire, through Lincolnshire and the 
eastern counties ; the other, through the southern counties, into Kent ; himself 

to advance on the central line in the Thames valley. The Yorkshire army was under the Earl of Newcastle, a loyal 
soldier, but no general ; the southern army was under Sir Ralph Hopton, a loyal and excellent general. Against this, 
five eastern counties (Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cambridge, and Hertford), i.e. the most exposed part of the 
Parliamentary districts, dropping the merely local patriotism of the rest of the counties, united into the "Eastern 

May tO Dee. At first matters went well for the King. June 18, Hampden is defeated and mortally wounded at Chalgrove 
Field, south-east of Oxford. 

In the North : From June to October, Newcastle was successful, beating as he did the Fairfaxes (Lord Fairfax and his 
son Sir Thomas) at Adwalton Moor (June 30, -formerly A therton Moor), frustrating Cromwell's victory at Gainsborough, 
July 25, in that Cromwell was forced to retreat before Newcastle ; and laying siege, after the capture of Lincoln, to 
North. Hull, the great army-depot of Parliament. However, the Fairfaxes, instead of shifting for themselves, joined 
Manchester and Cromwell, who therefore won the engagement of Winceby, October 10, and so the siege of Hull was 
raised. Parliament was enabled to hold out in Hull chiefly on account of having sea-power that is, free access to 
that important town from the sea. Hull being still in their hands, Newcastle's southward march was rendered very 
improbable, if not impossible. 

South, In the South : Hopton, beating Parliamentarians at Stratton, May 16, advances near Bath, where Waller is encamped ; 

1643. Hopton beats Waller both at Lansdown, July 5, and at Roundway Down, July 13. He then advances into Hampshire, 
where he is, near Winchester, in September. He even captures Arundel, in December ; this is the most advanced 
point ever reached by the Royalists in the south. Waller, however, recaptures Arundel, January, 1644, and succeeds 

1644. in defeating the Royalists at Cheriton Hill, near Alresford, March, 1644. That repulse was of importance, in that a 
defeat of Waller would have forced Manchester to come south to the rescue of London, the road to which was open to 
the Royalists but for Waller's victory. Once Manchester leaves the north, Rupert could have easily prevented juncture 
of Scotch with Parliamentary army. 

Centre, In the Centre : King suffered from the unwillingness of the rank and file of his armies to leave their counties, which 

1643. were ravaged by the Parliamentary garrisons of Plymouth, Gloucester, and Hull respectively. King, hoping Newcastle 
would capture Hull, was fairly forced to capture Gloucester in his back, instead of advancing, as strategically he 
ought to have done, on London. So in August, 1643, he laid siege to Gloucester ; however, Gloucester was relieved by 
Essex, and the King, trying to block the road to London for Essex, met the latter at Newbury, where an indecisive 
battle (the first of Newbury) was fought in September, 1643. Essex's road to London was free. 

1644. At the beginning of 1644 (in February, March) the Parliamentarians threatened King in his rear, in South-west Wales. 
In May both Essex and Waller were near Oxford, but instead of joining, they separated, Essex, after marching north 
of Oxford to Islip Bridge, turning round to invade the west. His motive was jealousy of Waller, rather than the 
conviction of the necessity of driving the King out of the west ; his pretext was to relieve Lyme, besieged by the 
Royalists. After relieving Lyme and Weymouth in June, Essex turned westward. Meanwhile, King, thinking as he 
did that both Essex and Waller were after him, had left Oxford and moved up north of Worcester. On learning, 
however, that Essex had separated from Waller, King turned back to gather new recruits from Oxford, and then 
went eastward, hesitating whether to fight Waller or to attack London. Waller, who dogged him, gave battle on the 
29th of June, 1644, at Copredy Bridge, and was beaten. 
King now went in pursuit of Essex, and forced the whole of Essex's infantry to capitulate at Lostwithiel, Sept. 2 

South. Essex himself escaping in a boat, while his cavalry cut their way out. London was now again exposed to an attack 
from King ; so Manchester, Cromwell, Waller, near Reading, joined Essex from Portsmouth, and gave battl 
second of Newbury), Oct. 27, with no decisive result. The King retreated to Oxford, which he entered on Nov. 2 
In the north things had gone well with the Parliamentarians. In January, Sir Thomas Fairfax beat the Royalists at 

North. Nantwich, the only Parliamentary town in Cheshire. In the same month (Jan. ) the Scotch army, allied with and 
paid by Parliament, crossed the Tweed ; and although Rupert relieved Royalist Newark in March, the Fairfaxes 
occupied Selby in April, made their juncture with the Scotch in the same month, and Lincoln was taken by Mancn 
in May. 

Campaign Of Marston Moor. Rupert, starting from Shrewsbury, with the double view of picking up recruits and of 
relieving York, besieged by the Scottish-Parliamentary army, marched in a rather circuitous fashion, relieved, by n 
victory at Bolton, May 28, the heroic French wife of the Earl of Derby, who had defied her Parliamentary besieger 

North, at Lathom House for three months, and was reinforced by Goring and others. The Parliamentary generals at 1 irk, 
Cromwell, the Fairfaxes, Leven, Manchester, refused to fight Rupert in the wrat, and awaited him at Marstoi x>r, 
near York, where, on July 2, they defeated Rupert and Newcastle completely. With very few exceptions the n 
of England fell into the hands of Parliament and their Scotch allies. 

1645. Parliament had meanwhile created the "New Model" army, and Sir Thomas Fairfax was its general, and since June 10, 
1645, Cromwell was its lieutenant-general, commanding the cavalry. In April, 1645, Fairfax and Cromwell ravaged the 
environs of Oxford, which town was besieged by the Parliamentarians. 

Of Naseby. The King wanted to join Montrose in Scotland, who in 1644 as well as in 1645 had worsted the 
Covenanters, who fought under the leadership of his clan-enemies the Campbells (the Marquis of Argyle), in the 
Grampian mountains, in the battles of Tippermuir, near Perth (Sept. 1, 1644), Aberdeen (Sept. 13, 1644), Inverlochy, 
close to the Ben Nevis (Feb. 2, 1645), Auldearn, west of and close to Elgin and the Moray Firth (May 9, 1645). The 
last-mentioned victory seemed to give Montrose a free entrance into the Lowlands, and Leven, in order to prevent the 
King's joining Montrose, threw himself into Westmoreland. The King's chances seemed fair. Fairfax's army was, 
against all military sense, immobilised before Oxford, so that the King could rapidly advance against Leven with hopes 
of success. He left Oxford on May 9, moving northward. On May 31, 1645, Leicester, important from its central 
position, was taken by Rupert. However, the King, vacillating between various plans, now moved southward in 
order to protect Oxford, his base. At last Parliament ordered Fairfax to leave Oxford, which he did on June 2, 
marching against the King. Cromwell joined him on June 13. They met the King at Naseby. Rupert quite under- 
rated the " new model," did no reconnoitring, and he and the King were signally defeated by twice the number (13,600) 
of Parliamentarians, July 14. The victory of Naseby crippled the King's forces, in that it deprived him of nearly all 
his officers, his whole train of artillery, and of arms for 8,000 men. In the remaining part of June and in July, the 
King, somewhat harassed by Leven, who had left Westmoreland and was now on the Severn River, tried in vain to 
recruit new soldiers in lukewarm Wales and Herefordshire. In August he attempted to make a dash at the associated 
counties near Huntingdon (August 24). Just then his cause, lately so desperate, seemed to gain new chances of 
success through the victories obtained by Montrose' at Alford (July 2, on the Don River, not far from Aberdeen) and 
especially at Kilsyth (August 15, near Glasgow), which apparently opened the Lowlands for Montrose. However, shut 
out from the north by Leven and Pointz, the King was forced to return to his base, Oxford, where he arrived on 
August 28. The south-west of England, where the King's forces were still in evidence, was invaded by Fairfax, who 
routed Goring at Langport on July 10, took Bridgwater on July 23, Sherborne on August 2, and forced Rupert to 
capitulate in Bristol on Sept. 10. Rupert had no other choice, says Professor Gardiner, but the King would hear no 
excuse, and dismissed Rupert from his service. 

To face Map 24. 

Reich's Atlas of English History 


1642 to Sept. 10,1645 
Scale 1:4.000.000 

10 go K> H> 10 K) JO 

D.-Donrrington Castle 


London .MacmlUant Co. Ltd. 


(Movements of King in red; of Parliamentarians in blue.) 

1645. Sept. King Charles I. marches north from Raglan to join Montrose, and raises ABBREVIATIONS. 

siege of Chester. Pointz follows him from Tewkesbury, and defeats him at -, ,-, 

TT ,, T7 -. ~ . . . . 11 C. = Cromwell. 

Rowton Heath. King retreats to Denbigh, whence by a long detour to p. _ gj r Thomas Fairfax. 

1645. Oct. Newark, where he arrives on Oct. 4, 1645, expecting to meet Goring. King H. = Hamilton (Royalist). 

again attempts to go north, but stops at Welbeck Abbey, and sends on Digby, Ho- = Hppton (Royalist). 

who is defeated by Pointz at Sherburn. King then retreats to Oxford. 1^ Z K Jn| Charles II. 

Last Campaign in the West. Fairfax, from Bristol, advances, vid Dorchester, to \- = Lambert (Parliamentarian). 

1645. Sept. Tiverton, which he takes; while Cromwell takes Devizes, 1645, Sept., g; ~ po m tz g '(ParliamentIrian): 
Oct. Winchester Castle, and Basinghouse. Fairfax takes Dartmouth, 1646, Jan., 

1646. Jan. and defeats Hopton, who, with the Prince of Wales, had started from 

Feb. Mar. Tavistock, at Torrington. Hopton retreats into Cornwall, and surrenders at Tresillian Bridge, 1646, March. 
In the same month Astley makes a last stand for the Royalist cause at Stow-on-the-Wold, where he is defeated 
by Brereton. 

1646. April, May. King leaves Oxford, intending to reach Lynn, London, or the Scotch, whom he joins at Southwell, 1646, 
May 5. His route is given on the map. 

Scotch Campaigns in 1645. Montrose, hoping to collect forces in the Lowlands, leaves Glasgow, 1645, August, and descends 
on the Tweed River. Highlanders desert him. Leslie, then Parliamentarian, comes from Newcastle along the 
coast to cut off Montrose's retreat northward, but, hearing of the latter's weakness, turns south, and defeats him 
at Philiphaugh, 1645, Sept. 13. That defeat shattered all the hopes of King Charles I. 

1648. Kent and Colchester Campaign. Fairfax defeats Kentish insurgents at Maidstone, 1648, June. The Earl of 
Norwich (Goring) escapes vid Rochester to Blackheath, thence over the river to Colchester. Fairfax crosses river 
at Gravesend and besieges Colchester, which, after nearly three months' siege, is captured by him. (On the map, 
under Maidstone, read N + F 48.6). 

1648. Campaign in South Wales. Poyer, Parliamentary Governor of Pembroke Castle, declares for the King, 1648, 
February ; he takes Pembroke town and Tenby Castle. Cromwell advances from Gloucester, by Chepstow to 
Pembroke, and takes Chepstow and Tenby in 1648, May, Pembroke Castle in 1648, July. Cromwell returns to 
Gloucester, and advances thence vid Warwick and Leicester to Doncaster, against the Scots under Hamilton. 

1648. Campaign Of Preston. Hamilton invades West of England, in the interest of the King, vid Carlisle and Appleby, 
1648, July, into Lancashire. Lambert, Parliamentarian, retreats into Yorkshire to cover siege of Pontefract, and 
joins Cromwell, who comes from Doncaster (see preceding paragraph). Cromwell turns west, defeats Hamilton at 
Preston, 1648, August, and pursues him through Wigan to Warrington. Hamilton capitulates at Uttoxeter. 
Cromwell goes north by Durham to Berwick, which he takes, 1648, September. 

1650. Dunbar Campaign. Cromwell advances along the coast, and attacks Leslie, now opposed to Cromwell, before 
Edinburgh, unsuccessfully. Accordingly, Cromwell falls back to Dunbar, where Leslie, who had followed him, is 
utterly defeated by Cromwell, 1650, September. Lambert defeats Brown at Inverkei thing ; Cromwell then crosses 
the Forth, and advances to Perth. 

1650. Montrose's Last Campaign. Montrose, with an army of Danes, Germans, and peasants from the Orkneys, starts 

from the Orkney Islands ; advances through Caithness and Sutherland to Dunrobin Castle ; turns inland, expecting 
the Mackenzies to join him. Disappointed, returns to Carbisdale, where he is defeated by Strachan, 1650, April ; 
he escapes, but is captured in Ross-shire. (The size and scale of the map rendered it impossible to show the 
marches of Montrose. ) 

1651. Campaign Of Worcester. Scots, under K n (subsequently King Charles II. ), from Stirling advance through Cumber- 

land and Lancashire. Lambert and Harrison (Parliamentarians) fall back from Warrington and join Cromwell, 
who comes from Leith (near Edinburgh), at Warwick. Cromwell defeats K 11 at Worcester, 1651, September 3. 
K n 's flight after Worcester is given on the map by a red line consisting of dots and lines. 

1654. Monk's Campaign in the Highlands. After securing the lines of the Forth and Tay, Monk ravages the Highlands, 
and pursues Middleton, who is defeated by Morgan at Dalnaspidal, 1654, July. 

Irish Campaigns during the Civil War, 1649. Ormond advances from Kilkenny towards Dublin, sending on Inchiquin 
to Drogheda and Dundalk, both taken by Inchiquin. However, Jones defeats Ormond at Rathmines, 1649, 
August 2. 

Cromwell's Irish Campaign. Cromwell lands at Dublin, 1649, August. He retakes Drogheda, Wexford, and New Ross, 
besieges Waterford. He sets out from Youghal in January, 1650, through Kilkenny and Tipperary. He takes 
Kilkenny town, and finally Clonmel, 1650, May. Ireton fails to take Limerick. (The Irish campaigns are not 
entered on the map, offering, as they do, very little strategic interest. For plantations in Ireland, see special maps. 

To face Map 25. 

Heidi's Alias of EiiIi.sli History 


.\6dtOftor, Morgan U- - 

|0 12 


From Sepl.lO, 1645 to July 1654 

Scale 1 -.4.OOO.OOO 



BV \ s tol Channel r"T* ^^ 

London.. Macttrillaiv* Co . IJd 


INTRODUCTION. The Dutch were at a disadvantage in that their admirals were constantly ABBREVIATIONS. 

escorting Dutch convoys through the Channel, by which circumstance the Dutch g _ Blake (English admiral). 

captains were very much hampered in their movements. The English admirals, jj! = d'Estrees (French admiral, ally of 

on the other hand, were seriously hampered whenever they tried to fight with English in 1672). 

their large vessels near the low shores of Holland. J; = jg$ggS fiSS 

1652. At first desultory fighting in the Channel, off Folkestone and Plymouth, to capture R. = de Ruyter (Dutch admiral). 

Dutch merchantmen, also round the Orkneys to capture (Blake leading) the ^ SSSSSiffiKaL 

Dutch herring-fleet. Dutch, though on the whole worsted, offered very serious jf, = van Trompl father of Cornelius. 

resistance, so that war with them was "no child's play which its promoters had W. = De With (Dutch admiral). 

anticipated " (Gardiner). Off Kentish Knock De With, worsted by Blake, 1652, Y. = Duke of York, subsequently King 

September 28. But on 1652, November 29, van Tromp, the father, thoroughly 

defeated Blake (who had been deserted by several of his ships, being anyhow 

in numerical inferiority) off Dungeness. 

1653. Van Tromp, the father, escorting a huge wine-convoy from Bordeaux, met Blake off Portland, then again off Beachy 
Head, but succeeded in saving his convoy and in doubling, despite the predictions to the contrary of English pilots, 
the headland of Cape Grisnez, 1653, February 18-19. On June 2, 1653, Monk and Deane met van Tromp, the father, 
and De Ruyter off the Gabbard, and the next day, June 3, off Nieuport (south of and close to Ostend). Dutch 
captains, having almost no ammunition, were worsted, but not routed (Gardiner). In the battle of the Texel, 1653, 
July 31, van Tromp, the father, was killed, and his fleet defeated by Monk, but the latter's ships so badly shattered 
that the blockade of Dutch ports by the English had to be given up. Van Tromp, the father, fell a victim to Dutch 
procrastination and administrative incompetence. At first the English Parliament, even more than Cromwell, insisted 
1654. on conditions of peace most insulting to the Dutch. At last mutually satisfactory conditions of peace were accepted, 
1654, April 5. 

1665. York beats Opdam off Lowestoft (sometimes called battle of Solebay). 

1666. Rupert goes westward in search of French fleet, Monk going eastward. By thus breaking up the unity of the fleet, 
De Ruyter was given an opportunity to force Monk to retreat. Monk joins Rupert, but both are beaten by De Ruyter 
and van Tromp, the younger. Yet English quickly rally, and beat De Ruyter off North Foreland, and harass the 
Dutch coast up the Texel. 

1667. De Ruyter sails up the mouth of the Thames. Peace of Breda. 

1672. De Ruyter fights York and d'Estrees off Southwold, June 7, 1672, and on the following day the Anglo-French fleet 
retreats, and no idea of invading the Dutch coast could be seriously entertained. 

1673. De Ruyter checks Rupert and d'Estrdes in the Schooneveld Bank (June), and likewise off Camperdown. De Ruyter 
deliberately chose the shallow Dutch coast. By his successes he saved Holland, preventing, as he did, English troops 
from landing on the coast of Holland while Louis XIV., King of France, was advancing into Holland from its 
continental or eastern frontiers. 

To face Map 27. 





1689. War is declared against France. ABBREVIATIONS. 

1690. Prince Waldeck is defeated at Fleurus by Luxemburg (Duke). m = Kond^Dutch Admiral. (With 
Admiral Tourville sets out from Brest and sails along Devonshire and Dorset Eng.) 

coast to Beachy Head, where he defeats Lord Torrington and the Dutch who had B. = Lord Berkeley, 

rpti'rprl Vipfnrp him frnm Rt TTplp-n'a C. = Cochorn, Dutch Engineer, 
retirea ceiore mm irom ot. neien s. _ j^^g ^iv King of France. 

Torrington retreats to the mouth of the Thames, where Tourville gives up the j^ = Duke of Leinster. 

pursuit. Lu*. = Duke of Luxemburg. (Fr.) 

R. = Admiral Russel. 
1691. Louis XIV. and the Duke of Luxemburg take Mons before the eyes of William III. S. = Sir Cloudesley gjf* 

During the rest of this year there is a desultory campaign in Flanders, but no .j,^ ~ Lord^orrington. 6 

important engagement. V. ' = Marshal Villeroy. 

W. = William III., King of England. 
1692. Louis XIV. and James having collected an army for the invasion of England, 

Admiral Tourville is ordered to La Hougue to protect the embarkation of the 

troops. Falling in with the English and Dutch fleets, who have sailed from St. Helen's under Admiral Russel, he 

holds his own against the allied fleet off Cape la Hague, May 18, but is completely defeated off La Hougue and 

retreats into the bay, where many of his ships are burnt by the English ; yet Tourville next year defeats Rooke off 

St. Vincent. (On map read : T. instead of To. ) 

The Duke of Leinster from St. Helen's lands at Ostend, and proceeds by Fumes and Dixmude to the siege of Dunkirk, 

but is soon forced to retire. 

1692. Meanwhile, Louis XIV. and Luxemburg advance by Mons to the siege of Namur, which they take. William III., having 
advanced to the Mehaigne River, retires by Genappe to Lembeque. The Duke of Luxemburg from Namur proceeds by 
Soignies to Steinkirk, where he is attacked by William III. The latter being defeated retires to Lembeque, where he 
rallies his forces. 

1693 William III. takes post at Louvain. 

Luxemburg from Gembloux attacks and takes Huy and makes a feint on Liige. William III., having advanced to 

Landen, sends reinforcements to Liege, and is attacked soon after at Landen (orNeerwindenXby Luxemburg, and being 

defeated, retires by Louvain to Brussels. 

Luxemburg takes Charleroy. 

Great disaster to the Smyrna merchant fleet, which is almost destroyed or captured by the French off Cape St. Vincent. 

1694. Lord Berkeley, sailing from St. Helen's, bombards Dieppe and Havre, and Sir Cloudesley Shovel, sailing from the same 
harbour, bombards Dunkirk and Calais. 

William III. from Louvain marches to Sombref , thence by Soignies to Chievres and Oudenarde, where he crosses the 
Schelde with the object of taking Courtray, but is prevented by Luxemburg. 
The Allies later in the year take Huy. 

1695. William III. from Aerseele, having made a feint on the side of Flanders, marches direct to the siege of Namur. 

Marshal Villeroy from Menin takes Dixmude, Deynze, and bombards Brussels. Thence he marches by Enghien to 
Fleurus and Gembloux, and attempts to relieve Namur, which however capitulates to William III. Villeroy retreats 
to Charleroy and Dinant, and thence to Mons. Lord Berkeley and the Dutch Admiral Almonde, sailing from 
Portsmouth, bombard St. Malo and Granville. 

1696. The Earl of Athlone and Cochorn from Namur attack Dinant, and burn the French magazine at Givet. 
1697. The Peace of Ryswick is signed. 

There was also considerable active opposition to the accession of William, in Scotland. At Killiekrankie (where the 
letter y is in the name of the " River Tay " on map No. 12) on June 17, 1689, the English general Mackay was beaten 
by the Scotch under John of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, who, however, was killed in the battle. A stain on the 
reign of William is the massacre of Glencoe (a glen where the "Stewarts of Appin" are entered on map No. 12) on 
February 13, 1692. 

To face Map 28. 


= General Ginkell. 

= Richard Hamilton. (Jacobite.) 

= James II. (late King of Eng- 

= Colonel Kirke. 

= Earl of Marlborough (later 

= Duke of Schomberg. 
S.R. = General Saint Ruth. (Fr.) 
W. = William III., King of England. 
Wo. = Colonel Wolseley. (Eng.) 




1689 1 Tyrconnel unites the Irish against the English. Increases the army and disarms ABBREVIATIONS, 

the Protestants, who take refuge in Londonderry and Enniskillen. 
Richard Hamilton marches.from Dublin into Ulster, by Cavan, Dromore, Omagh, 
and Strabane, and lays siege to Londonderry. 

James (the late King of England) meanwhile lands at Kinsale with French troops, 
and proceeds by Cork and Kilkenny to Dublin ; after going to Londonderry he 
returns to Dublin. Naval engagement in Bantry Bay, between Herbert (later 
Torrington) and the French, under the Count of Chateau Renaud. 
Colonel Kirke from Liverpool relieves Londonderry, after a siege of 105 days. 
Hamilton retiring by Strabane and Omagh to Charlemont. Colonel Wolseley is sent 
by sea round the coast of Donegal up the Erne to Enniskillen, whence he marches 
to Newton Butler, and utterly defeats Macarthy, Earl of Mount Cashel. The Duke of Schomberg from Chester lands at 
Carrickfergus, which he takes, then marches by Lisburn, Lough Brickland, Newry, Carlingford, to Dundalk, where he 
entrenches himself opposite James's forces, who have marched from Drogheda and Ardee. Owing to pestilence 
breaking out in the English camp, Schomberg is reduced to inactivity, and on James retiring, he returns towards 

1690. William III. from Chester to Carrickfergus, on to Belfast, Lisburn, Lough Brickland, Newry, Dundalk, marches 
towards the Boyne River. 

James, who has meanwhile joined his forces near Ardee, retreats south of the Boyne River to Donnove. . William crosses 
the river, and wins the " Battle of the Boyne." 

James flees to Dublin, and thence through the Wicklow Hills to Waterford, whence he goes by sea to Kinsale and then 
on to France. 

William takes Drogheda and marches to Dublin. Then by Kilkenny and Clonmel, he goes to Waterford, which he 
takes, then by Cashel he marches on Limerick, but being repulsed, retires, and later returns to England. 
Marlborough from Portsmouth takes Cork and Kinsale. 

1691. General Saint Ruth sails up the Shannon with munitions of war from France, to Limerick, and thence to Athlone. 

General Ginkell from Mullingar marches on Athlone by Ballymore. After taking Athlone he marches to Ballinasloe 
and defeats Saint Ruth at the battle of Aughrim. He then takes Galway and Limerick. 

To face Map 29. 

Reich's Atlas of English History 


IN I RELAND I689TO 1691 

Scale l:2.75aOOO 

O S 10 30 80 4O to CO 70 M 



T.ondon , Macmillan C o . Lt d . 

Wagner A Debes'Oo^^Brtah^ Lipic. 




702 and 1703. During these years the Dutch, together with the Austrians, the allies of ABBREVIATIONS. 

the English against the united French and Bavarians, pursued military plans ... .,,. , D . 

., . 6 .?. r IT ^^ j 1-1 iii- d A. = General d Arco (Bavarian), 

quite in opposition to those ot Marl borough, and hence deliberately thwarted him. g^ = D U C de Bourgogne (French). 

The Dutch wanted principally to secure the Meuse River and its fortresses, so as E. = Bugen of Savoy (Austrian), 

to prevent the French from invading Holland again . Accordingly, they gladly JJ. = Marlborough 

saw Marlborough capture a few fortresses on the Meuse, but, by procrastination ^ ~ MarshaTTallard (French)! 

and otherwise, hindered him in his plans to crush the French marshal, Boufflers, y*. = Vendome (French), 

whom Marlborough repeatedly put into tight positions. Vi. = Villars (French). 

VI. = Villeroy (French). 

1703. Marlborough had resolved to carry the war to the Danube, where both the French 
general Tallard and Max Emanuel had scored rather heavily off the Austrians 

in 1703, and whither, in the same year, VendOme was trying to move up through the Tyrol, in June, 1703. However, 
both VendOme, and Max Emanuel who invaded the Tyrol from the north, met with unexpected and most 
harassing resistance on the part of the Tyrolese peasants under Sterzinger, and had to give up their attempt on 
Tyrol. The chief point now remained to prevent Tallard at Strassburg from joining Max Emanuel, and thus to beat 
them singly, a manoeuvre successfully carried out in the same districts of the Danube, and under identical circumstances, 
by Napoleon, in 1805. 

1704. May. Marlborough moves from Roermond along the Rhine on a line which, by eventually threatening the French 
Alsace (Strassburg) as well as the Danube, left his adversaries in grave doubts about his real intentions. Tallard, 
however, was not prevented by Eugen from joining Max Emanuel, and Eugen, from the lines of Stollhofen, could only 
follow Tallard through the Black Forest (Villingen) and join Marlborough. Marlborough, in order to secure the 
crossing at Donauworth, gives battle at the Schellenberg (July 2), defeats d'Arco, and so gains a free entrance into the 
country (Bavaria) of Max Emanuel, whose dominions, by a move on Friedberg, he threatens with devastation. Learning, 
however, of Tallard's junction with Max Emanuel, he recrosses the Danube, and together with Eugen signally defeats 
the French (Tallard) and Bavarians (Max Emanuel) at Blenheim (August 13), capturing Tallard himself, but not Max 
Emanuel. The danger of a Franco-Bavarian move on Austria was thus averted, and the invasion of Austria by 
the Hungarians under Rakoczy (Francis II. ), the allies of France and Bavaria, likewise foiled. Marlborough retired 
into winter-quarters on the Moselle River. 

1705. Marlborough joins the Dutch on the Meuse and cleverly crosses the lines of the Geethe rivers built by Villeroy, but is 
hampered by the Dutch, so that he reaches the eastern neighbourhood of Brussels without having achieved much. 

1706. May. Marlborough marches on Ramillies, and there fights and defeats Villeroy with an army consisting exclusively of 
Dutch and Danes, the English only joining in the pursuit. 

1707. The French sending more troops to Flanders, moreover bad weather setting in, Marlborough could do nothing. 

1708. French threatened Ghent and Bruges, the magistrates of which they had bribed ; Marlborough anxious to protect Brussels. 
Vendome and Bourgogne were, however, preceded by Marlborough at Lessines, and thus their march on Ghent 
rendered impossible. Marlborough and Eugen crossed Schelde River in presence of French army. Marlborough and 
Eugen defeat Bourgogne and VendSme at Oudenarde, July 11. Marlborough and Eugen manage to drag with 
16,000 horses the siege apparatus before Lille, without Vend6me or Bourgogne interfering with them. Lille defended 
by Boufflers with considerable ability, allies repeatedly failing. Yet, Dec. 9, Boufflers capitulates, marching out with 
honours of war. 

1709. Marlborough captures Tournay (Sept. 9), and finding Villars too strongly entrenched near la Bassee as far as Douai, 
he goes south to Malplaquet, where he and Eugen defeat Villars, but at a greater loss by far than that suffered 
by the French, Sept. 11, so that Marlborough's intention of invading France became impossible. 

1710. Marlborough takes Douai (Oct. 4) and minor places, but home-intrigues thwart him. 

To face Map 30. 



1704. In August, 1704, Rooke at the head of an Anglo-Dutch army possessed himself of ABBREVIATIONS. 


B. = Berwick (French). 

1705. Franco- Spanish attempts to recapture Gibraltar. G. = Galway. 

Peterborough sails up the eastern coast of Spain, takes Denia, and also Barcelona, ^' = st^h^pe Ugh ' 
an important base. St. = starhemb'erg. 

V. = Vendoine (French). 

1706. Galway from the Portuguese frontier, at Campo Mayor, by Valencia de Alcantara, 
Alcantara, Ciudad Rodrigo, and Salamanca, to Madrid, the French retreating before 

him. Berwick, from Burgos, descending on Madrid, causes Galway to move east, where the latter intended joining 
Peterborough ; both retreat to Valencia, on the coast. In 1706, Alicante was captured by the British. 

1707. Berwick, from Madrid, attacks Galway at Almanza, and completely defeats him, in April. In the next two years the 
war in Spain dragged on without any conspicuous event. In September, 1708, Stanhope possessed himself of Fort 
Mahon, in Minorca. 

1710. Starhemberg, defeating the French west of Agramont and at Lerida, advances by Saragossa to Madrid. Vend&me 
marches, from Aranda, by Almarez, to cut off Starhemberg's communication with Portugal, then on Madrid, forces 
Stanhope who was sent against him to retreat by Toledo, and enters Madrid. Stanhope is surrounded and 
defeated by Vendome at Brihuega ; and the same fate awaits Starhemberg at Villaviciosa, December, 1710. These two 
battles decide the victory of the French cause. 

It will be noted how, in the War of the Spanish Succession, as well as in the wars of Hannibal and Napoleon, victories 
won in Italy, Germany, or the Netherlands, were neutralised by defeats in Spain. Thus, Ramillies was largely 
discounted by Almanza ; and Malplaquet rendered academic by Brihuega and Villaviciosa. 

To face Map 31. 

Kcirh's Atlas' of English History 




AUG. 13,1704 
Scale 1:80.OOO 

* "" 

"Mon. t,r 
g '.-. . Forest 

* 9 

SEPT. 11, 1709 
Scale 1:80.000 

i Miles 

e r 

>. F or e s t" 

Londoix.Macmillan & Co. Ltd. 

*. Drbes ' Oog* Eitatr Leipii 


1743. Campaign Of Dettingen. June 27. Noailles advanced from the Rhine in order ABBREVIATIONS, 

to destroy the so-called "Pragmatic Army" under George II. and Lord Stair, c = Duke of Cumberland, 
the object of which was to prevent the French from joining their allies, the Co. = Cope (English). 
Bavarians, George II. being the ally of Maria Theresa, and hence the enemy of G. II. = King George II. 
the Bavarians. Stair rightly urged to cross the Main River, in order to secure H. = Hawley (English), 
forage being brought down river. However, George II. violently objected ; and jj^ Z DiK^deNoailfes^Prench). 
so, to obtain supplies the British-Hanoverian army was forced to move up river, p* = The Pretender. 
Noailles having secured the left bank of the Main. Finding insufficient S. = Marechal de Saxe (French), 
quantities of supply at Aschaffenburg, George II. was, as Noailles had 

calculated, compelled to return towards Hanau, where some magazines were located. Noailles now rapidly sent 
Grammont to the north side of the river near Dettingen, enjoining Grammont to entrench himself and to bombard the 
allies from within his entrenchments, Noailles himself to attack from the southern bank. Had Grammont obeyed, the 
allies could not have escaped starvation or destruction. Grammont, however, disobeyed, which, it would appear, 
demoralised Noailles too, in that the latter remained idle on the southern bank, while George II. fought his way 
through the corps of Grammont. George left his wounded on the battle-field. The French, under Belleisle and 
Broglie, having already been driven out from Austria and Bavaria by the Austrians themselves, the victory of 
Dettingen was, for the Hapsburgs, of an importance infinitely less than that of Blenheim. 

1745. Campaign in the Netherlands. Cumberland, in order to protect Brussels, advanced southward, to meet Saxe who, 
by winding marches, had left the allies in the dark about his real intentions. Cumberland met Saxe at Fontenoy, 
on May 11, and was signally defeated in spite of the most heroic gallantry of the British troops. Saxe now 
hastened to secure all the Flemish towns that might give a sea-base to the British, and in rapid succession (see 
dates on map) took, amongst other towns, Tournay, Ostend, Ghent, Antwerp, and at last also Brussels. Mean- 
while, Cumberland, whose communications with England were rendered daily more precarious, was obliged to leave 
the Netherlands, in order to crush the rebellion of the Pretender in England and Scotland. 

1745-46. The Pretender's Rebellion. Charles Edward (Stuart), the "Young" Pretender, had invaded Scotland at the 
head of a small but rapidly increasing number of Scotch adherents. Cope, from Edinburgh, marched against him, 
but did not even attempt to fight him at Corry Arrack, chiefly because Cope found the popularity of the Pretender 
to be an overwhelming moral force, even amongst Cope's own soldiers. Cope therefore retreated by Inverness, 
Aberdeen, and the sea. The Pretender meanwhile, gathering constantly new adherents, marched southward, and 
avoiding Stirling Castle, one of the few fortresses of the Brunswicks in Scotland, advanced on Edinburgh. Both 
at Colt Bridge, and still more at Prestonpans, where Cope was utterly defeated, the English undisciplined soldiers 
were taken by sudden panics. The Pretender now decided, much against the will of his partisans, to invade England, 

1745. in the north of which old and feeble Wade alone commanded a little force at Newcastle. In order to deceive his 
opponents about his real route, the Pretender caused his army to march in two columns, one by Kelso, the other by 
Moffat. He entered England, and advanced unmolested by Wade, indifferently received by the people, as far as 
Cheadle. Bv that time Cumberland had arrived in England, concentrated at Lichfield, and thinking that the 
Pretender meant to invade Wales, Cumberland turned first westward, thereby allowing the Pretender to steal a march 
on him. Early in December the Pretender was at Derby, and threatened, as it was thought, London. Cumberland, in 
order to protect the capital, by forced marches advanced as far as Northampton, but only ruined his horses, the 
Pretender having already returned by the same route to Scotland. Cumberland followed him, fighting unprofitable 
rear-guard engagements. The Pretender fought and defeated Hawley at Falkirk, and although Cumberland followed 

1746. him up as far as Perth, he found it easy to march northward, having been reinforced by French auxiliaries who had 
landed at Montrose, and to possess himself of various districts, and at last also of a seaport, Inverness, where he hoped 
for supplies from France. Meanwhile, Cumberland, amply supplied by English ships, the sea-power of the English 
being intact, advanced from Aberdeen on Culloden Moor, where the Pretender was ill-advised enough to accept battle 
under the most unfavourable circumstances, his army being starved, and greatly outnumbered by that of Cumberland. 
Accordingly, Cumberland completely defeated the Pretender, April 16, and thus put an end to the rebellion. 

Campaigns in the Netherlands. 1746. In 1746, Cumberland returned to the Netherlands, his immediate object being to 
prevent Saxe from taking Mons, Charleroi, Namur, and other places, by the capture of which Saxe wanted to and 
eventually did force the allies to fight on the middle Meuse River. By thus engaging them between Liege and 
Maestricht, Saxe hoped to render their junction practically unfeasible. Already the coast was in his hands, so 
that supplies for the British army had to be brought, not by sea and river, but overland (Tilburg-Namur) which was 
most cumbersome. Saxe followed Cumberland's move from Tilburg, Peer, Hasselt, to Namur, in a parallel line, while 
other corps of his took Mons, Charleroi, and Namur. Cumberland, in search of supplies, was forced to cross the 
Meuse, and recrossing it near Liege, he was beaten by Saxe at Rocourt on October 11. 

1747. In the next year Cumberland's third attempt was foiled at Laeffeldt, July 2, by Saxe, who finally secured Bergen- 
1748. op-Zoom, and, in the next year, even Maestricht. 

The war was terminated by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748. 

On the sea there was, during that war, no important event whatever. 

To face Map 33. 


(By an oversight, for which the reader's indulgence is asked, the accent in the word " years' " has been misplaced in the 

title of the map.) 

Campaigns in America. 1755. In that year, preceding the first year of the Seven ABBREVIATIONS 

Years' War proper, four attempts were made by the English to dislodge the FOR SECTIONS III., IV., AND V. OF THE 
French from their American colonies: (1) On the Monongahela River result, MAP - 

Braddock and Washington completely defeated at Fort Duquesne, 1755, July ; ^. = Abercromby (British general). 

(2) against Crown Point ; (3) against Fort Niagara ; and (4) against Forts B. = Byng (British admiral). 

Beausejour and Gasperau, in Acadia, which were taken by Moncktori. Bo. = %^ ( l 

1756. Montcalm takes and burns Fort Oswego, Lord Loudon being unable to prevent it. D.C.= De la Clue (French admiral). 

H. = Sir Edward Hawke (British ad- 

1757. July. In July, Lord Loudon, finding French l^avy too strong before Louisbourg, miral). 

abandons attempted descent on that town. M. = Monckton (British). 

Aug. In August, Montcalm took, after a siege costing hundreds of killed and *> = SSffiSfiSSU^ 

wounded of the besieged British, Fort William Henry. RO. = Rodney (British admiral). 

1758. July. Montcalm, with a little more than one-fourth of the British force under W " = Wolfe ( British general). 

Abercromby, entrenched himself in front of Ticonderoga, and routed the British 

Army, causing them close on 2,000 casualties. 
Aug. Fort Frontenac (French) taken by the British. Very important success, in that the Ontario Lake, won by capture of that 

Fort, connected northern and southern portions of French possessions. 
NOV. French evacuate and burn Fort Duquesne. 

1759. On June 6, Wolfe, with 8,500 well-trained soldiers, sailed from Louisbourg into the St. Lawrence, and arrived before 
Quebec on June 21. Montcalm had 14,000 men "of one description or another" (Fortescue). All the attacks of 
Wolfe on the right and left flank of Quebec were repulsed during the months of July and August. The failure of 
Wolfe (himself in very poor health) during these months would not have been serious, had the movements of the other 
British generals been successful. For Wolfe's movement was only one of a concerted set of movements, by which the 
French were to be driven out simultaneously from the districts of the Lakes (including Lake Champlain), and from 
Canada, all the British armies to be eventually concentrated upon Quebec. However, with the exception of Wolfe, 
the British generals failed, in 1759, to carry out the well-laid plan. Amherst, it is true, took, or rather had 
taken, Fort Niagara, by Sir W. Johnson, 1759, July. He also occupied Ticonderoga and Crown Point, which had been 
deserted by the French. However, in spite of his 1 1,500 men, Amherst could not, for lack of boats, possess himself of Lake 
Champlain, held by the French (3,500 men) under Bourlamaque. The capture of Quebec is mainly a naval triumph, in 
that the British vessels, under Holmes, passed successfully under the Quebec batteries, and thus cut off the only road 
for provisioning Quebec that is, the road to Montreal. Wolfe gave his decisive battle on the Heights of Abraham, 
September 13. Both Montcalm and Wolfe were killed in the battle. Wolfe's ascending the Heights on a path least 
suspected by the enemy repeats the feat of Fra^ois de Guise in the capture of Calais (1558). 

1760. The French failing to recapture Quebec, Murray from Quebec, Amherst from Oswego through the Ontario, and Haviland 
through Lake Champlain, all of them, in August, converge on Montreal, defended by barely 2,500 men under 
Bougainville and Bourlamaque (the Canadian militia having "melted away,"), against 17,000 British. Montreal 
surrenders, September 8. 

Naval War in European Waters. Previous to the formal declaration of war in 1756, May 17 (on the part of England), 
hundreds of French trading vessels were seized by the English. The French had 63 ships-of-the-line, of which 45 
were fair-conditioned ; Spain had 46 ships-of-the-line, hardly in good condition ; England had 130 ships-of-the-line. 

1756. June. Byng fails to prevent Richelieu from taking Port Mahon and the important island of Minorca. 

1757. In June, the English made an abortive descent on Cancale Bay. 

In September the English take isle of Aix, at the mouth of the Charente River, but fail in the attempt to invest 

1758. Bligh takes Cherbourg, but fails before St. Malo, and is defeated at St. Cast. Thus all the attempts, directed by 
Chatham, to effect an invasion of French territory in Europe failed. . 

1759. De la Clue starts from Toulon for an invasion of England, is intercepted by Boscawen off Cape St. Vincent near Lagos, 
most of his ships being taken by the English. Conflans starts from Brest hoping to meet part of the British fleet and 
to destroy it before he attempted descent on Scotland ; but Hawke, who had blockaded Brest, met Conflans in Quiberon 
Bay, where he destroyed a few French ships, losing himself two, and shut up fourteen Frerch vessels in the Vilaine 
River and on the coast of Rochefort ; so practically paralysing the French fleet. 

1762. Island of Martinique, the centre of French privateers, and nearly all the other French possessions in the West Indies were 
captured by the British. In August, Pocock took Moro Castle, in Havana, with much treasure. Considering that it 
was from Havana that " the only passage by which the treasure and other ships could sail from the Gulf of Mexico to 
Europe" without " beating up" against the trade- winds, the capture of Havana was very important. 

(Under Sandershausen read Fe + Bg.) ABBREVIATIONS 


Campaigns on the Continent Of Europe. The campaigns on the continent of Europe 3 g> = Duc ,je Broglie (French). 

were, on the whole, distributed over two distinct spheres : one between the Bs. = Hereditary Prince of Brunswick 

rivers Saale and Warthe, conducted by Frederick the Great in person ; the other Cs. = Castries (French), 

between the rivers Rhine, Maine, and Elbe, conducted first by the Duke = SZe ofCumberiand. 

of Cumberland and, since 1758, by Ferdinand of Brunswick. Frederick's D. ' = Daun (Austrian general), 

chief battles are indicated on the map, victories of his being underlined red, Es. = d'Estrees (French), 

defeats blue. Ferdinand's campaigns, indicated with sufficient clearness on the ^ = FerdfmnVoTBnmswick 

map, were, on the whole, inefficient. In his armies there generally was a strong p^. = Fermor (Russian general), 

contingent of British soldiers. His most remarkable victories were at Crefeld H. = Henry of Prussia. 

(1758, June); at Minden, 1759, August ; at Vellinghausen, 1761, July; and at Hi. = Hildburghausen 

Wilhelmsthal, 1762, June. The most notable victories of the French were at K ' trian general) 

Hastenbeck (over Cumberland), 1757, July ; at Sandershausen, 1758, July ; at Ld. = Laudou (Austrian general). 

Bergen, 1759, April; at Corbach 1760, July; 'and at ; Kloster Kamp, 1760, R. = Due de Richelieu. 

October. S. = Soubise (French). 

To face Map 34. 

Beiclt's Atlas of Eivglislv History 



Scale 1:5.000.000 


1 : 3.4OO OOO 

10 2O 3C 


s -Jmticosti I. 


Surrenclas609.8 _ 

F 1 . Frontenac (Fr. 




Scale i:iL72O.OOO 


i-. 35.000.000 

" '"Mile 



13 U^ 

VBahama I* I ' 



. -ik 7-vJ^~< 
*-^~^ 17 

L n t i 1 "* 



Scale 1 : 12.OOO.OOO 


1600. East India Company receives its first Charter. ABBREVIATIONS. 

1639. Madras acquired. C. = Lord Clive. 

. . , . T, , , , Co. = Sir Eyre Coote. 

1662. England receives Bombay from .Portugal. Cor. = Lord Cornwallis. 

.__ , , , j C.S. = Chunda Sahib. 

1690. Calcutta founded. H. = Gen. Harris. 

1708. The old and new East India Companies united. g* = g^Lrfly' ^FrT' 

1746. Labourdonnais attacks and takes Madras, stipulating to give it up, on a ransom La. = Labourdonnais. (Fr.) 

being paid ; but Dupleix, who succeeds him, refuses to give it up. g Z! col' SttuaiT 8 

1748. Madras restored to the English by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. S!D. = 8i J^ al Dovr]&h, Nabob of 

1751. Chunda Sahib, supported by the French, attacks Mohammed Ali (the English T. = Tipu, son of Hyder. 
candidate in the Carnatic) at Trichinopoli. Clive, to relieve it, marches from 
Madras on Arcot, which he takes and defends against enormous odds. 

1752. Recall of Dupleix. English and French come to terms, leaving Mohammed Ali ruler of the Carnatic. 
1756. Sirajah Dowlah from Rajmahl, by Cossimbazar, attacks and captures Calcutta. Tragedy of the Black Hole. 

1757. Clive, arriving from Madras, recaptures Calcutta, Sirajah Dowlah retiring to Moorshedabad. War declared between 
France and England. Clive attacks and takes Chandernagore. Sirajah having taken the side of the French, Clive 
marches to Plassey and utterly routs him, setting up Mir Jafar in his place. 

1758. Clive relieves Patna, which is attacked by Shah Alam, with a mixed army of Afghans and Mahrattas. 
Clive attacks and takes Chinsura, the Dutch settlement. 
Count Lally, arriving at Pondicherry, attacks and takes Fort St. David, razing it to the ground. 

1760. Lally, having marched from Pondicherry and laid siege to Wandewash, is defeated there by Sir Eyre Coote, who has 
come through Madras. 

1761. Sir Eyre Coote captures Pondicherry. 

1763. (Restored 1763.) 

1764. Defeat of the Nabob of Oude at Buxar by Munro. 

1769. Hyder Ali (the English having joined a. confederacy against him) invades the Carnatic from Coimbatore, by Erode and 
Caveriperam up to Madras, where the Council accedes to his demands for a defensive alliance. 

1780. Hyder Ali again invades the Carnatic from Seringapatam, towards Madras, besieging Wandewash, Chingelpat, and 
Vallore ; cuts up Colonel Baillie's force at Poliloor. 

Sir Eyre Coote, arriving from Calcutta at Madras, attacks the Pagoda of Chilambrum, but is repulsed ; marches 
to Porto Novo, where he defeats Hyder Ali, who has come south from Arcot. 

1781. Coote relieves Wandewash, and then, by Chingelpat, marches on Arcot, which he takes. Hyder Ali retires to Poliloor, 
where he fights an undecisive battle with Coote, but is routed by him. at Sholingur. 

1782. Hyder, with his son Tipu and the French, attacks Braithwaite at Tanjore, capturing the town and garrison. Marches 
to Cuddalore and Arni, where he is defeated by Coote. 

1784. Death of Hyder Ali. 

Soon after Tipu makes peace with the English. 

1790. Tipu, by Coimbatore and Palghat, attacks the "Lines of Travancore," and, having penetrated them, captures 
Kranganur, and ravages the northern districts of Travancore, returning to Coimbatoie. The English declare war on 
him, and Medows and Stuart march from Kaiur to Coimbatore. Stuart attacks Palghat, but retires, and later on is 
repulsed in an attack on Dindigul. Tipu, having defeated fcoyd, goes to Trichinopoly, and thence to Trinomali 
and Permakal. 

1791. Lord Cornwallis takes over the command^ and, marching from Vallore to Kolar, reaches Bangalore. (On map 
wrongly '92.) 

1792. After an unsuccessful advance he returns to Bangalore, from whence he marches, by Savandrug, to the siege of 
Seringapatam. Tipu submits, and peace is made. 

1799. War declared against Tipu. 

General Harris marches from Policode to Royacotta and Anekal. 

General Harris to Malvalli, where he routs Tipu. Death of Tipu at the capture of Seringapatam, which ends 

the war. 

To face Map 35. 




Treaty of Bassein, by which the Peishwa transfers his suzerainty to the East India 
Company, leads to the Mahratta War with Scindia, Holkar, and the Rajah of 

Sir Arthur Wellesley from south of Poona to Poona, Ahmednugger, and Aurungo- 
bad, whence he drives the Rajah of Berar and Scindia, who try to cross the 
Godavery and get to Hyderabad. The British drive them north ; Wellesley 
finding them at Assay e, beats them. 

General Stevenson from Assaye to Burhampur and adjoining fort of Asirgarh 
and takes both. 

Wellesley defeats the Rajah of Berar on the plains of Argaum, lays siege to 
Gawilgarh and takes it. Treaty of Deoghaum. 

General Lake, from Cawnpore, takes Aligarh, thence to Delhi, which he captures, 
delivering Shah Allum. Thence to Laswaree, where he defeats Ambaji, and Agra, 
which also falls into his hands. Treaty under which Scindia cedes Doab territory 
and part of Guzerat to the British. 

1804. Holkar, from Rampura, takes Muttra, and marches against Delhi, which he invests, 
but has to raise the siege. 

Holkar retires to Farackabad, whither Lake, who comes from Delhi, pursues him. 
Holkar goes to Bhurtpore, where he repulses Lake. 

1814. Gurka or Nepaul War breaks out, the Gurkas invading British territory. 

Gillespie from Saharanpore to Dehra, whence he attacks Nalapani, and himself 
falls in the assault, which is unsuccessful. Nalapani is eventually taken, and is 
razed to the ground, though its garrison escapes. Sir Gabriel Martindale, who 
succeeds Gillespie, makes no progress. Sir David Ochterlony from Loodiana, 
advances to Nillaghur and attacks Malawn, which he takes in 1815. 
Marley from Dinapur advances to Bettia and Samanpur, but, part of his force 
being cut up, returns to Bettia. 

1815. After the fall of Malawn peace is signed, but war breaks out again, and in 1816, 
Sir David Ochterlony from Dinapur sets out for Khatmandu, by Makwanpur, 
where the Nepaulese send an embassy suing for peace. 

1817. Pindaree and Mahratta War. 

Lord Moira (Hastings) collects a large army to suppress the Pindaris. 

Scindia is compelled to sign a treaty, and Ameer Khan lays down his arms on 

being promised what is now the principality of Tonk. The Peishwa Bajee Rao 

is forced to sign a treaty at Poona, still more limiting his power than had been 

done by the Treaty of- Bassein, 1802, but he soon after attacks, from Seroor, 

Elphinstone and Colonel Burr, who are at Kirki. 

Brigadier-General Lionel Smith from Godavery through Ahmednugger and Seroor 

to Poona, which surrenders. Bajee Rao flees to Western Ghauts. 

1818. British concentrate at Hoshungabad ; Sir Thomas Hislop and Sir John Malcolm 
from Hoshungabad to Oojain and Mahedpur, where they defeat the Mahratta 
force and capture young Holkar. 

Sir Dyson Marshall from Dholapur to Huttah and Rylee, and thence to 
Hoshungabad ; Sir John Malcolm along vale of Nerbudda ; Wazil Mohammed from Garspoor is driven north 
towards Gwalior, joins Kureem Khan, and makes for Shahabad. 

General Donkin, who has come from Agra to Gwalior, goes along Chambal River and defeats Wazil Mohammed and 
Kureem Khan, north of Kotah. They join Cheetoo, who has inarched by Mahedpur from Ashta into the war district. 
Together they proceed by Jawud to Chitor. 

Sir John Malcolm from Seringpur into Malwa. Cheetoo flees into Cancleish by Guzerat, and is eaten by a tiger. 
Kureem Khan to Jawud, and after it is taken by Brown, to Gorrockpore, where he surrenders to Malcolm. End 
of Pindari War. 

1818. Peishwa Bajee Rao after leaving Poona goes to Pandarpur, and thence near Seroor and Poona towards Nasik. 

Colonel Smith from Poona marches south to sources of Krishna, defeats Mahrattas, and thence against Peishwa in 
north. Peishwa, defeated by Colonel Stanton at Koreignaun (or Korigaan), flees towards Galpurta, but turns north 
to Miraj, thence to Sholapur and Pandapur and north towards Wurdha, but is defeated by Colonel Scott in Berar 
and turns south to Sholapur, which Colonel Smith takes. Peishwa flies to the Nerbudda and there surrenders. 

1823. First Burmese War, the Burmese claiming the island of Shuparee at the mouth of the Nauf River. 

1824. English with Sepoys from Madras to mouth of Irawady under Major-General Sir Archibald Campbell, taking isles of 
Cheduba and Negrais, and on to Rangoon. 

Brigadier McMorine at Goalpara to Gowhaty, sending on det^chment to Nowgong. Movement to south frustrated 
by rainy season. 

Captain Noton from Chittagong to Ramoo, but is defeated by Burmese and retires. 
Maha Bandoola from Arracan advances on Rangoon, is defeated by Campbell at Okkim, and retires to Donabue. 

1825. Brigadier Morrison from Chittagong along coast, and Commander Hayes by. sea, to Nauf River, takes Mangdoo, 
and Commander Hayes advances up Kalydine, and Arracan is taken. Campbell by land to Proine, through. 


A. = Gen. Aiis.. n. 
A.K = Ackbar Khun. 
Ay.K. =AyubKhan. 

B. = Rajah of Berar. 
Ba. = Sir H. Barnard. 
B.R. = Bxjee Rao, Peishwar. 
Bu. = Gen. Burrows. 

C. = Maj.-Gen. Sir Archibald Camp- 

= Sir Colin Campbell. 

= Cheetoo. 

= Maj. Cotton. 

= Gen. Donkin. 

= Sir Dysnii Marshall. 

= Lieut. Edwardes. 

= Gen. Gillespie. 

= Gen. Godwin. 

= Sir H. (later Lord) Gough. 

= Holkar. 

= Commander Hayes. 

= Sir Thomas Hislop. 

= C-.l. Holmes. 

= Sir H. Smith. 

= Gen. Havclock. 

= Sir John Keane. 

= Kureem Khan. 

= Gen. Lake. 

= Gen. Lockhart. 

= Lai Sing. 

= Maj. Murley. 

= Sir John Malcolm. 

= Maha Bandoola. 

= Maj.-Gen. Mitchell. 

= Brig. McMorine. 

= Brig. Morrison. 

= Mutineers. 

= Capt. Noton. 

= Sir Charles Napier. 

= Gen. Nicholson. 

= Gen. Nott. 

= Sir David Ochterlony. 

= Gen. Pollock. 

= Gen. Sir F. Roberts (now Earl). 

= Ranee of Jhansi. 

= Maj.-Gen. Roberts. 

= Sir Hugh Rose. 

= Rajah of Scindia. 

= Brig. Lionel Smith. 

= Shere Sing. 

= Gen. Stevenson. 

= Maj. Sutherland. 

= Tharawaddi. 

= Tantia Topee. 

= Sir Arthur Wellesley. 

= Wazil Mohammed. 

C. C. 














































Lyne back to Henzada, to Donabue, where, meeting Cotton, they defeat Maha Bandoola. Burmese retire to Prome 
under Tharawaddi, then to Meaday. Campbell takes Prome, and defeats Burmese who attack him ; Campbell advances, 
Burmese retiring before him to Meaday, Patanago, Pagan, and Yandabo. The King of Ava comes to terms. 

1827. Lord Combermere takes Bhurtpore. 

1838. Dost Mohammed receives Russian Embassy, war is declared against him, and England supports Shah Sujah. 

1839. Sir John Keane from Bombay to Indus through Tatta to Karachi, which he takes, to Sehwan, where he meets Sir 
H. Lane ; to Larkhana, Dadur through Bolan Pass to Kandahar, Turnuk valley to Ghazni, which is taken by storm, 
to Kabul, where Shah Sujah is set up. Dost Mohammed fleeing across Hindu Koosh. 

1841. Insurrection at Kabul; murder of Burnes. 

1842- Evacuation of Kabul. English and Sepoys retreating to Jalallabad are cut up by Ackbar Khan. Nott, from Kandahar to 
Maidan, defeats Shumshoodeen Khan at Gohaine, to Ghazni and Kabul. 
Pollock from Peshawur by Gundermak to Kabul, Dost Mohammed left in possession of the throne. 

1843. Sir Charles Napier's campaign in Scinde. Defeats Baluchis at Miani and takes Meerpore or Mirpur and Umarkot. 
Annexation of Scinde. 

1845. Sikh War. 

Sikhs under Lai Sing and Teh Sing cross Sutlej ; Teh Sing besieges Firozpur, Lai Sing to Mudki, where he is defeated by 
Sir Hugh Gough. Lai Sing retires to Firozshah, where he is again defeated by Gough. Sikhs flee across the Sutlej. 

1846. Sir H. Smith from Firozshah to Loodiana on to Alival, where he completely defeats Golab Sing. 

Sir Hugh Gough to Sobraon-against Sikhs under Teh Sing and Shere Sing, who have come across Sutlej, and defeats them. 
Gough advances across to Lahore, where peace is signed. 

1848- Moolraj revolts in Mooltan, Lieutenant Edwardes, from Dera-Ghazi-Khan, besieges Mooltan, and takes it with 
General Whish. 

1849. Shere Sing from Mooltan to Ramnagar. Lord Gough from Firozpur to Ramnagar, is repulsed by Shere Sing, who then 
retires to Chillianwallah, where Gough attacks him. After defeating the English, Shere goes to Gujerat, where he is 
completely defeated by Gough. 

1852. Second Burmese War. 

General Godwin from Calcutta to Martaban, which he takes, then to Rangoon. 
Major Lockhart takes Rangoon and Bassein, and Cotton captures Pegu. 
Annexation of Lower Burma 

1856. Annexation of Oude. 

To race Map 36. 




1857. Indian Mutiny. Native troops at Barhampur and Barrackpur mutiny, but are suppressed. 

Native troops mutiny at Meerut and make their way to Delhi, which they seize, the King throwing in his lot with them. 

In Lucknow Sir Henry Lawrence disarms rebels and prepares the town for a siege. He soon dies, but the garrison 

holds out. In Cawnpur, through Nana Sahib's intrigues, General Wheeler and English garrison are hemmed in by 


General Anson advances from Amballa by Karnal to Paniput, but dying, is succeeded by Barnard, who advances to 

the siege of Delhi. 

General Nicholson with movable column, after disarming natives at Philhar and Amritsar, advances to Gurdaspur 

and Sialhot, but returning to Amritsar is sent to the siege of Delhi, and advances to that town by Amballa, Karnal, 

and Paniput. 

Nana Sahib captures Cawnpur and massacres the Europeans. 

Capture of Delhi and death of Nicholson. 

Erinpura Sepoys mutiny and march by Ajmer towards Delhi, but are defeated by Colonel Gerard at Narnaul and 

General Havelock and General Outram relieve Lucknow from Allahabad through Cawnpur, but are immediately 
blockaded by the mutineers. Sir Colin Campbell finally relieves Lucknow, marching by the same route as Havelock. 

Tantia Topee, from Gwalior and Calpee or Kalpi, attacks Cawnpur, but is defeated by Campbell. 

1858. Lucknow finally occupied by Outram. Sir Hugh Rose, from Indore and Sehore, attacks and takes fort of Rahatgur, 
enters Saugar and takes Garacotta, advances on Ihamsi, where he besieges the Ranee of Ihamsi. Tantia Topee from 
Chirkari advances to the relief, but being defeated retires to Kalpi, where he is joined by the Ranee, after the fall of 

Rose takes Kalpi ; the Ranee, and Tantia Topee, and Rao Sahib attack and take Gwalior. Rose from Kalpi to 
Mo'rar and Gwalior, which he recaptures. Tantia Topee and Rao Sahib flee across the Chambal to Tonk and Bheelwara 
Major-General Roberts from Nasirabad defeats them at Bheelwara and Kataria. Roberts toPoonah. Tantia Topee and 
Rao to Rajgurh, where they are defeated by Major-General Mitchell, who comes from Nalkerry. (On map read Mi. 
instead of M.) They retreat to Lallapur and Sindwaho, where Mitchell defeats Rao; they retire to Khoraie, where 
they again are defeated by Mitchell, and passing by Hoshungabad and through Kurgaon, are defeated at Rajpore by 
Major Sutherland from Sheelwana. 

Tantia Topee goes to Oodepore, Banswara. and Saloombar to Partabgarh, where he repulses Major Rocke. Tantia 
goes on by Zerapur and Burode, where he is again defeated, up to Indergurh, where he is joined by Firozashah, to 
1859. Seekur, where his army is dispersed by Colonel Holmes from Nasirabad. 
After wandering in the jungles, he is captured, tried, and executed. 

1879. Shere Ali, Ameer of Afghan, refuses English mission, but welcomes Russians. Roberts from Thai takes Kuram fort, 
Peiwar, and to Kabul. Treaty -of Gandamak. Ameer Yakoub agrees to receive an English envoy. Sir Louis 
Cavagnari is murdered. Roberts through Khyber from Peshawar to Kabul. 

1880. Yakoub Khan is deported to India, and Abdur Rahman is set up instead. 

Ayub Khan is admitted into Herat by the Afghan governor and advances on Kandahar, defeating General Burrows at 


Sir F. Roberts from Kabul through the Logar valley, Kelati-Khilzi to Kandahar, which he relieves, defeating Ayub 

Khan outside the city. 

1886. King Thebau of Burmah is deposed, and the whole of Upper Burmah ip annexed. 

To face. Map 37. 

Reich's Alias of English History 

IN INDIA 1857-1886 
Scale 1:12.000.OOO. 

Longitucle East of Greeivw. 

I, omlon,. M;IC-III 1 1 Ian .<('(>. Ltd. 

Wagner 4. Debts' Gof Kstab' Ltipiic 

Reich's Atlas of .English History 


Laccadive , 

Is lands, 

liefer ence 

1 Anriefit H ritixfi. Possessions or Oioxe 
afffie Kast 

2 Powers under the Protection of the. Company 

3 Mahratta. States v.-tiifh in consequence of the. * \Xn 
! late Ircnisactions subsidised. Iroops oCtht Company 

. Muhrcilta. Staff of Sinjitiii 
5 Mahralta State offfolkar 
!G Mahrutta State ofBerar 

1 7 Rajpoot States 

18 . 

i'vtfh \Independejit State 


in 1804- 
Scale l:2aOOOOOO 

11 -Jdtjhe 

s ofSamroo Kejinniti 
\ 3 RujidelntnfL tLnd^rstood- to be e^cctumged. by 

thr.l'fisHwnJi fbr-Territorie.t first reil'eil In-' 

hint on the. Western Canst 

Rritisfi Dominions Ll JndependfiU 'Stater 
rrf Protected States Ij&Portuq 

London. M;uiiiill;iii A Co Mil 

Wagner * Dabei'Gcof EtVL*ti>iic 



THI chief cause of the profound disaffection amongst the Colonists from 1763 to the ABBREVIATIONS 
outbreak of the war in 1775, was the policy of the British Government with 

regard to the vast territory virtually acquired by the victories in the Seven Years' n' 

War (see Map No. 34). Like so many other wars outside Europe, the war of Ba. = U:^?(">enVh Idm'i 

American Independence was waged, in reality, for the Hinterland of (the Cl. = Clinton (English), 

thirteen) Colonies. It was that vast, fertile, and relatively easily accessible n * Z. CornwalH " (English). 

Hinterland, that the Colonials had, from 1755 to 1761, fought for. Yet, after the E = d'^'uhi'il (French? 

peace of 1763, the British Government issued a proclamation forbidding land- G! = Gage (English) 

sales west of the Alleghany Mountains, practically reserving all that immense Gn - = Greene (American), 

territory between the Alleghanies and the Pacific as a Crown domain. The English f 0tl^2Si2!3v** > 

law of real estate, moreover, rendered the acquisition of landed property so diffi- Gv. = Graves (English) 

cult and so complicated that the Colonists slowly but steadily came to the H. = Howe (English general), 

resolution of breaking loose from the mother country. Pretexts were easily found. S d> !| <xxi ( ^" gl , iHl } <l'mnU). 

It is well known that the other great war in America, the Civil War, too, H|'. = Hughes Kglinhlih^ml) 

arose principally from a Hinterland question. In Canada, on the other hand, ' Hw'. = Robert Howe (American), 

the Hinterland was not precious enough to give rise to serious friction between K - = Knyphauuen (English). 

the Colonies and the Home Government. k f - 

M. = Montgomery (American). 

1775. The war began near Boston, witli the battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill (on the : i'^ ^ (American) 

map erroneously Bunkershill), both causing considerable loss to the English forces : vice) 

under Gage. In October, Arnold, by sea and along the Kenebec River ; and Rd. = Lord Rawdon (English). 

Montgomery, by Montreal, marched on Quebec, which they tried in vain to wrest Ro - = Kochambeau (French). 

from the English. = ~ u , ff ! n (F ^ n ,^ ^."I 1 " 11 )- 

Sw. = Col. Stewart (English). 

1776. In March, 1776, Boston was practically abandoned by the English, Howe leaving for w = Washington (American). 
Halifax. Washington, who had been encamped before Boston, now left for New 
York, but suffered a severe defeat near Brooklyn at the hands of Howe, who had 

returned from Halifax in August. Washington was forced to retreat into New Jersey, yet contrived to defeat, at 
Trenton, an English-German corps under Rahl, in December, as also a corps of Cornwallis's army, at Princeton, in 

1777. January. In July, 1777, Burgoyne attempted, through Lake Champlain, to advance by the Hudson valley, hoping to 
be joined by Clinton from New York. However, after fights at Bennington and at Stillwater in August and September, 
Burgoyne found himself both circumvented, outnumbered, and starved, and so was compelled to surrender to Gates, 
at Saratoga, in October, 1777. Clinton had been unable to proceed up the then wild valley of the Hudson. This 
surrender, then called " the Convention of Saratoga," had an immense moral effect both on the Americans and on 
Europe. It quite outweighed in importance the English successes which in the same months were won by Howe, who 
had sailed from New York, at Brandywine and Germantown over Washington. For although Philadelphia was secured, 

1778. and Washington's army rendered helpless for a while, yet in 1778 Clinton retreated from Philadelphia, and even met 
with a reverse at the hands of Washington at Monmouth Courthouse, in June. With the exception of Saratoga, 
where close on 14,000 Americans had triumphed over a British force of less than 4,000 men, the Americans had in the 
first three years of the war secured only very few military successes. Charleston resisted Clinton, who had sailed 
there in May, 1776, only to return without any result, in July of the same year. Yet, on the whole, the American 
army depended very much more on the most efficient, if not all-decisive help extended to the Americans by France, 
than on their own exertions. The soul of the French efforts to help the Americans was the poet Beaumarchais, whose 
marvellous versatility and resourcefulness never shone more brightly than in this great war. Under the name of 
" Hortalez et C ie ," he established at Le Havre, what was apparently an export business in reality, however, the 
headquarters of all the military and naval stores and officers sent from France to the Colonies. Beaumarchais equipped 
entire fleets (" mes flottes" as he said), sent many thousand men and officers, among them the efficient Kalb, and 
incessantly memorialised and successfully urged both the French and the Spanish Governments to continuous and 
substantial participation in the war. In 1778 a considerable French fleet, under d'Estaing, arrived off Delaware Bay, 
sailed up to Newport and Boston, and then repaired to the West Indies. From that time onwards, the English were 
losing, slowly but steadily, their sea-power in the Atlantic, that is, their base. In December, 1778, Campbell was, t 

1779. is true, able to take Savannah in Georgia, which important place d'Estaing failed, in September, 1779, to recover. 
Moreover, Robert Howe (American) had, in January, 1779, been beaten by Campbell, at Sunbury. Washington was 
more or less immobilised in New Jersey and New York, where for three years (1778 to 1781) nothing of a decisive 
character happened. Yet, with all that, the English were more and more restricted to the southern Colonies, while 
in the northern ones the war had practically ceased to have any effect. 

1780. Clinton, in May, 1780, captured Charleston, and for the next twelve months Cornwallis attempted to restore British 
rule in the two Carolinas. In numerous battles with the American generals Greene and Gates, Greene was invariably, 

1781. Gates frequently worsted Greene at Guilford Courthouse, in March, 1781, at Hobkirk's Hill, in April, 1781, at Etaw 
Springs, in September, 1781 ; Gates at Camden in August, 1780 (.*c). Nevertheless, Cornwallis found it impossible to 
reach Clinton at New York by marching inland across Virginia, and so repaired to the coast to Wilmington. Con- 
stantly harassed by the indefatigable American generals, he reached Petersburg, and again tried to go west, reaching 
Columbia. Finally he decided to sweep round to Yorktown, where he arrived vid Richmond, Suffolk, Portsmouth, and 
Norfolk. Had the sea been held by the English, Cornwallis's position would have now been quite safe. However, the 
command of the sea near Yorktown had been wrested from the English admirals Hood and Graves, by the French 
admiral de la Grasse, aided by Barras, who defeated the English fleet off Cape Henry. This victory, although one of 

no imposing appearance by itself, must, from its immediate and ultimate effects, be counted amongst the most 
important naval engagements of modern times. Like the similar engagements off Calais and Gravelines in the times 
of the Armada (see Map No. 21) it decided the fate and historical position of a great nation. For, the sea being held 
by the French, Washington (who had dexterously deceived Clinton at New York as to the real objective of the Franco- 
Americans under Rochambeau and himself) needed only a few rapid marches to invest Yorktown from the land-side 
too ; and so Cornwallis was obliged to surrender on October 19, 1781. This virtually ended the war. 

Naval War in Indian Waters. 1782-1783. The French, not content with having contributed so decisively to deprive the 
English of the American Colonies, carried the war into India. Le bailli de Suffren, a French admiral of exceptional 
ability, fought Hughes in the waters between Ceylon and Madras, checking or defeating him repeatedly, in 
February, 1782, off Madras ; April, 1782, south of Trincomalee ; September, 1782, off Trincomalee, which Suffren had 
captured in August ; and in June, 1783, off Negapatam. So great was the effect of Suffren's activity, that the 
Carnatic was, in June, 1783, considered lost for the British. However, Suffren learned, to his dismay, that by the 
Treaty of Versailles (September, 1783) France had consented to restore nearly all her conquests in the Carnatic to the 

To fate. Map 39. 

RcicK's Alla.8 of EnglishJSJsloTy 


Scale 1:1O.OOO.OOO 

t Sf Johns A 

|BOLon&t.Kast of Gr 

London .Macrnillan A Co. Ltd . 


= BouiU6 (French). 

= Byron (British). 

= Cordova (Spanish). 

= d'Estaing (French). 

= de la Grasse (French). 

= de Guichen (French). 

= Hood (British). 

= Keppel (British). 

= Knyphausen (British). 

= d'Orvilliers (French). 

= PaulJones (American priva- 

= Parker (British). 
R. or Rd. = Rodney (British). 
Z. = Zouttman (Dutch). 

Triangles mean prizes taken by the 
British when red, by the allies when 
blue. Underlined triangles mean large 
prizes taken where the triangle is 













European WatePS. Both the French and their allies, the Spanish, disposed of consider- ABBREVIATIONS, 

able fleets. The first (drawn) engagement was off. Ushant between Keppel and 

1778. d'Orvilliers, in July, 1778. In the next year d'Orvilliers, from Brest, went to join 

1779. the Spanish fleet from Cadiz, at Cape Ortegal, in August, 1779, when both invaded 
the English coast, the English fleet retreating before them. However, disease and 
disunion soon forced them to return to Brest, without having achieved anything 
remarkable. Gibraltar was then besieged from 1779 to 1783, and defended, some- 
times against tremendous odds by General Elliot, afterward Lord Heathfield. 

1780. Rodney relieved it in 1780, and later on it was repeatedly provided with supplies. 

1781. In that year both the Dutch (in the Dogger Bank, where Zouttman fought Parker 
a whole day long without Parker's being able to obtain more than a draw) and 
the French and Spanish, under Guichen and Cordova, attacked two of the three 
main objects of the allies (Gibraltar, Port Mahon, and the English coast). 
Guichen, from Brest, joined Cordova at Cadiz, and both went to Minorca, where 
Port Mahon was besieged, and after six months taken, in 1782. Guichen and 
Cordova, leaving the capture of Minorca to a separate corps, proceeded to the 
English coast, but achieved nothing. Meanwhile, the French coast round 
Marseilles was harassed by British privateers, and the English coasts (Kerry, 
Whitehaven, mouth of Humber) by French cruisers, and especially by the bold and successful American Paul Jones. 
On the whole, neither the British nor the French Admiralty acted in that war with that prudence or energy that made 
the campaigns under Nelson so efficient. 

In the West Indies. The naval fights in the West Indies were both numerous, theoretically very instructive, and practically 
of little value. Rodney beat de la Grasse off the Saintes, south of Guadeloupe, in April, 1782 ; two years previous, 
however, he had himself been worsted by de Guichen off Dominica ; as Byron had been defeated by d'Estaing off 
Grenada in July, 1779. Nor were the captures made by the French (the isles of St. Eustache in November, 1781, by 
Bouille ; St. Christopher, by de la Grasse, in January, 1782 ; St. Vincent, by d'Estaing in June, 1779 ; Grenada, by 
the same, in July, 1779 ; Trinidad, by Guichen, in June, 1781, etc.) or those by the English (St.. Eustache, by Rodney, 
in February, 1781, etc. ) of a decisive character. Rodney's victory off the Saintes saved much of the unpleasantness 
of the diplomatic situation of England, without materially advancing her strength. It was, moreover, counterbalanced 
by the French victories, under Suffren, in the East (see preceding map). 

The American War of Independence, one of the five vast international wars of the eighteenth century, clearly repeated, 
to the British, the lesson that the wars of Louis XIV. and those of Napoleon had, or rather might have taught the 
French. In all the three cases, one Great Power essayed to defy practically the whole of Europe ; in all the three cases 
that Power failed. Neither the victories of Louis from 1688 to 1697 (see Map No. 28) nor those of Napoleon from 1796 
to 1815, permitted either to defy Europe without severe punishment. King George III., without winning victories 
such as Louis XIV. or Napoleon had won, could not possibly have hoped to achieve what these two monarchs were 
denied. Carrying on the war against the American Colonies and their allies in all the seas at a time, he was, like Louis 
XIV. and Napoleon, bound to meet with disaster. 

To face Map 40. 

Reich's Atlas of Eiuffiah History 



&* V 


I&.KJ rt Guadfiloupe 





Scale 1:15.000.000 

. Ltd. 


B. = Beaulieu ("Allies). 

C. = Coburg (Allies). 

D. = Dumouriez (French). 
H. = Bouchard (French). 
Kilm. = Kilmaine (French). 
M. = Miranda (French). 

0. = Prince of Orange (Allies). 

V. = Valence (French). 

Y. = Duke of York (Allies.) 


THIS campaign was organised by the so-called First Coalition (consisting of Austria, Prussia, ABBREVIATIONS. 

Sardinia, England, Holland, Spain, Russia, and minor States) against France. 

1793. Feb. March. Dumouriez advanced into Holland, taking Bergen-op-Zoom, Klundert, 
Willemstadt, Antwerp, Breda, Gertruidenberg. The Austrians (70,000 men) 
under Coburg advance from the Rhine, chasing before them Valence and Miranda. 
Dumouriez, to save the two latter, goes to meet Coburg, but is beaten at 
Neerwinden (March 18) and his army partly disperses, partly withdraws to the 
upper Escaut River, under Kilmaine. Coburg now approaches the French 
frontier, leaving Beaulieu on the right bank of the Meuse River, south of Namur, 
Coburg's left flank. The Duke of York enters Holland in March and proceeds by Willemstadt, Bergen o/Z., Antwerp, 
Ghent, Courtrai, to join Coburg. Had the Allies now gone straight for Paris, they might have dealt a fatal blow to 
the French. Instead of that they committed two grave mistakes : (1) Coburg wasted the months from May to 
September with the capture of the French border-fortresses of Conde, Valenciennes, Le Quesnoy, etc. (dates of 
capture on the map) ; (2) York, instead of joining Coburg for a decisive action, turned northward to possess himself of 

Sept. Dunkirk, in the interest of British policy. However, Houchard beat York at Hoondschoote (September 8), York was 
forced to abandon siege of Dunkirk, and was placed out of connection with Coburg. Beaulieu, coming from Dinant, 
was, however, successful in an engagement at Courtrai, thereby restoring connection between York and Coburg. On 

Oct. the other hand, Jourdan inflicted a defeat on the allies at Wattignies, October 15, thereby . relieving Maubeuge 
besieged by Coburg. The Allies now withdrew into winter quarters without having made either all the points they 
wanted to make, or those they ought to have made. 

To face Map 41. 

Reic-h's Atlas of English History 



Scale i: 2.2OO.OOO 

o 10 

Z u i d e 

S E 

Furn*. i 


jVaff/it'fnnef \ 




Kottc i(l;uu 







L:X d >*" 




London, Mac mill an A Co . Ltd. 


1794 and 1795 













= Beaulieu (Allies). 

= Coburg (Allies). 

= Charbonnier (French). 

= Clerfayt (Allies). 

= Jourdan (French). 

= Kleber (French). 

= Latour (Allies). 

= Moreau (French). 

= Prince of Orange (Allies). 

= Pichegru (French). 

= Duke of York (Allies). 

Coburg wasted time in 

1794, Both the armies of the Allies as well as the army of the French were far too much 
disseminated. The French disposed of 175,000 men ; the Allies of over 200,000 
men. The right strategic plan for Pichegru, general in chief of the French, 
would have been to attack, after concentrating his army, Coburg's left. Thereby 
Pichegru would have preserved his own communications (towards Paris), which 
by an attack on Coburg's right flank (Lille Courtrai, under Clerfayt) might have 
been exposed, and Pichegru could have forced Coburg, by pushing him towards 
the sea, to surrender. By an attack on Coburg's centre, or right, Pichegru 
would have only pushed the Allies back on their own communications. For similar 
reasons, Coburg ought to have operated along the Meuse and Sambre Rivers, from 
Namur to Maubeuge. Instead of that, both armies, following the old " cordon- 
system," spread themselves out over unmanageable lengths. The campaign began in March. 

besieging Landrecis, which he took on April 30 ; the French fought bootless and luckless engagements in the centre. 
Pichegru, prompted probably by Carnot, essayed to outflank Coburg's right. For that purpose Pichegru increased 
his own left wing, and Souham and Moreau, his generals, took Menin and Courtrai, beating both York and 
Clerfayt on April 29 and on May 11, and also Coburg, who came to the rescue of his generals, at Tourcoing, May 18. 
Coburg then retreated to Tournay, arriving there on May 22. Pichegru, in order to destroy the forces of York and 
Clerfayt, who were at Thielt, besieged Ypres, commencing on June 8, as a means of attracting York and Clerfayt 
thither, and defeating both at Roulers and Hooglede (midway between Thielt and Ypres) drove them back by Thielt to 
Ghent. Ypres fell on June 17. 

While thus Pichegru was tactically successful (not so stragetically, see introductory remarks) on Coburg's right wing, his 
own right wing under Charbonnier had tried twice in vain to cross the Sambre River, defended by Kaunitz, from 
May 10 to May 22. A third attempt (May 26 to June 3) likewise failed. 

Now Carnot, to save the whole situation by a strong movement of concentration, ordered Jourdan to leave the Moselle, 
join Pichegru, both to converge upon Brussels. That movement saved the French. Jourdan, it is true, also failed in 
his first attempt to cross the Sambre, on June 16 ; but two days later he not only crossed it, but also besieged 
Charleroi. Coburg, apprehending loss of his communications, left Tournay, and met Jourdan at Fleurus, June 26, 
where Allies were not worsted till noon, but at that moment Coburg suddenly commanded a retreat, so that Jourdan 
won a complete victory. The road to Brussels was now open to Jourdan. Pichegru's task, on the left wing of the 
French army, was easy. Clerfayt retreated by Ghent ; York on another route (see map) to Brussels. Pichegru tried 
to beat them singly by wedging in his army between them. Yet both York and Clerfayt reached the neighbourhood 
of Brussels. At last Pichegru and Jourdan joined their forces at Brussels, thus forcing the allies to quit Belgium. 
Jourdan pursued the retreating Austrians to the Rhine ; Pichegru pursued the retreating Anglo-Dutch through 
Holland, beating York at Boxtel, and in various minor engagements. 

To face Map 42. 

Reich's AUSLS of English History 

London, Macmillan& Co. Ltd. 


ENGLAND had, in 1793,115 ships of the line, France 76. England had 8,718 guns, France ABBREVIATIONS. 

6,002. French guns had heavier metal; England had 88,957 pounds against n 

WJ Rdl Wdght of broadside. Spain had 76 ships ofthe line, of &. Z%SSS%S5ffS 

which 56 were in good condition ; of the Spanish fleet, however, Nelson said : D. = Duncan, Admiral. 

" It is ill-manned and worse officered." Holland had 49 small poor ships of the d - = Daendels, Dutch Admiral, 

lino Du. = Dubourdieu, French Admiral. 

dW. = De Winter, Dutch Admiral. 

1793. Dee. English and Spanish abandon Toulon. H- = Lord Howe. 

Ho. = Hoche, French General. (Lazar 

1794. May 28-31 and June 1. Over 400 miles west of Ushant, fights between Villaret H.) 

Joyeuse, who wants to bring in a large convoy, and Lord Howe, who beats ]{* = Humbert^PY^nch'Gln^ral 

Villaret Joyeuse on June 1, but cannot prevent the convoy from reaching Brest. j. ' = sir John'jervis (later Earl of 

1795.-The English take the Cape of Good Hope, Malacca, all Dutch possessions in India, Mjr _ Mora^d^de^ Gallcs 

most of Ceylon. The Dutch fleet did not move before 1797, and then only a *' Commander. 

. little, in an attempt to recover the Cape (sailing round England), but failed. ' N. = Nelson. 

1796. Both in 1795 and 1796 the British Mediterranean fleet effected little, though the VI. = vmeneuve.^ 

Corsicans, by their friendship with England (Paoli) gave them, in Corsica, an V -J- = Villaret Joyeuse. (Fr.) 
excellent base of operations. Jervis withdrew towards Lisbon. W ' T> = 

Irish expedition in 1796. Hoche and Morard de Galles, with some 20,000 men, 

reach Bantry Bay, December 22, Spithead, the wrongly chosen base of the English, being too far to apprise 
the British Government in time. The two French commanders, however, never reached Ireland, owing to bad weather. 
The others, discouraged, left Bantry Bay almost at once, returned to Brest much battered, even wrecked, in 1797, 
January. (Invasion was directed on Bantry Bay to capture Cork, full of naval stores then, worth 1,500,000.) That 
the British fleets did not prevent the French from reaching and returning from Bantry Bay, shows bad strategy and 
insufficient preparation. 

1797. The Directory, anxious to invade Ireland with a combined Franco-Spanish fleet, had sent Villeneuve from Toulon to 
Brest, 1796, December; and in 1797, February, Cordova sailed up with 27 ships of the line from Cartagena. Sir John 
Jervis watched at Cape St. Vincent ; beats Cordova off St. Vincent, aided by Nelson and Collingwood, completely, 
and thus reveals utter worthlessness of Spanish navy, Cordova having had 27 ships against Jervis's 15. Jervis 
blockades Cadiz ; as a diversion for seamen inclined to mutiny and in order to capture treasure, he sends Nelson to 
Santa Cruz in July, but Nelson is repulsed and his arm had to be amputated. During 1797, no British fleet in the 
Mediterranean. In 1797, October, a Dutch fleet of 16 under de Winter tried to ship invaders to Ireland, Wolfe Tone 
amongst them ; but Duncan at Camperdown routs them 1797, October 11. 

1798. Nelson leaves Cadiz with a few ships, expecting more to join him, on May 2 ; arrives near Toulon on May 17 ; a gale 
seizes him, carrying him to the south end of Sardinia. Buonaparte had sailed on May 19. On June 7 Troubridge joins 
Nelson, but Nelson has no scouting frigates. Napoleon takes Malta June 12 ; Nelson lying off Civita Vecchia learns 
on June 14 that the French had gone south, direction unknown ; perhaps to take Sicily, or to invade Ireland by 
Gibraltar. It occurs to Nelson that the French went to Egypt ; accordingly he sails for Egypt. There he learns 
that no French fleet had been seen there (naturally, the French 400 sail moved much more slowly than Nelson's ships) ; 
instead of waiting for the French, Nelson cruised off Asia Minor, and came back to Syracuse on July 19, after coursing 
600 leagues in search of the enemy. From Syracuse he left again for Egypt, arrives near Alexandria, and in Abukir 
Bay completely defeats the French fleet under Brueys, August 1. Humbert from Rochefort succeeds in reaching 
Killala in North Ireland, but is obliged to surrender to Lord Cornwallis at Ballinamuck, 1798, September 8. A 
week later Commodore Bompard starts from Brest, reaches Lough Swilly, but is beaten 1798, October 12. End of 
1798 there was no Frencli ship of the line left in the Mediterranean. Port Mahon captured by the British on 
November 15, by expedition organised by the Earl of St. Vincent. 

1799. Bruix contrives to escape from Brest with 25 ships of the line, but his cruise, which was then interpreted as an attempt 
on Ireland, or on Egypt, proved fruitless, although he might have inflicted heavy blows on the much-scattered British 
squadrons in the Mediterranean. 

The English under the Duke of York and Abercromby, and the Russians under Hermann, first take Daendels's Dutch 
fleet in the Helder, advance rather victoriously (victory at Slaper-Dyc, September 10), but are beaten by Brune and 
Vandaume at Bergen, September 19. York must retire, make convention of Alkmaar, October 18, i.e. go home, but 
only after having stipulated the release of 8,000 captive Frenchmen. 

1801. England, to force Russia, Sweden, and Denmark to give up their passive alliance with Napoleon, sent Sir Hyde Parker 
(accomplished but sluggish) and Nelson to the Baltic. Nelson, who saw that Russia was the " trunk " and Sweden 
and Denmark only the "branches," wanted to go straight for Reval and Kronstadt ; but Parker, his nominal chief, 
insisted on not leaving hostile Copenhagen in the rear. In the whole business despatch was of the utmost importance, 
in that the period of ice-boundness, which terminates much more slowly in the harbours (Copenhagen, Reval, Kronstadt, 
&c. ) than in the open sea, must be utilised to prevent the Russian, Swedish, and Danish fleets from joining. Battle 
of Copenhagen. 

1805. Nelson thought Napoleon had designs on Egypt, therefore he (Nelson) went there (February), in vain ; Napoleon thought, 
the English only want to protect India, and most of their ships were being sent out there. Ganteaume closely 
blockaded at Rochefort, and so was also Brest ;~yet Villeneuve succeeded in going from Toulon to Martinique, which 
was to divert British, while Napoleon was to concentrate his forces from Ferrol, Rochefort, and Brest into the Channel. 

Nelson finally learned Villeneuve's movement, went by Cape St. Vincent to the West Indies, 1805, May 11 (from that 
Cape), arrived at Barbadoes June 4. Nelson, by specially despatching the Curieux, apprised old Lord Braham, head of 
the Admiralty, on July 9 of the return of Villeneuve. Braham at once seizes strategy, sends despatches to raise 
Rochefort's and FerroPs blockades to meet Villeneuve returning, which happens off Ferrol, July 22, a draw ; Calder 
neglects to do as much harm as possible to Villeneuve, for secondary reasons. Calder finally joins the Brest squadron 
in August, and then Villeneuve unites Spanish and French ships at Ferrol. Nelson back to the south coast of Spain in 
July. In August, Admiral Cornwallis had before Brest about 35 ships of the line, the Franco-Spanish at Brest 21, at 
Ferrol 29. Cornwallis on hearing of Villeneuve's move, wrongly detached Calder with 18 sail from Brest blockade 
after Villeneuve. Great chance now for the latter. But Villeneuve, although he bore up towards Cape Finisterre 
till August 15, altered his mind and went to Cadiz, where he arrived August 20. Calder joins Collingwood with 
26 ships at the blockade of the Franco- Spanish fleet of 35 ships in Cadiz till September 28, until Nelson comes from 
England. Napoleon, to lull suspicion, left Boulogne for Paris only September 3. Villeneuve hesitates, but hearing 
rumours of his deposition, he sails out, and Battle of Trafalgar, October 21, complete and decisive British 
victory over combined Franco-Spanish fleet under Villeneuve and Gravina. 

1811. In the Adriatic too, British cruisers were almost constantly harassing French vessels and the coasts, and in October, 
1811, Admiral Hoste defeated the French admiral, Dubourdieu, off Lissa, which island remained under British 
administration for some time after. 

To face Map 43. 

Reich's Atlas of English flistory 


from 1793 to 1815 

Scale 1:1O.O 

Napoleons Can 

F R A N C 


yt Vincent 




itat ute Miles 
iSSea Miles 

Battle of 

April 2,1801 

" Mile 



-English ships: * ^ 

1 Victory M 

2 Temeraire j 

3 Conqueror 

4 Leviathan 

5 Ajujr 

6 Orion jg. 

7 Agamemnon 

8 Minotaur 

12 * a" * * 2 

.T " . 1 * 


10 turyolus " 

11 Britannia 

12 Africa, 
J3 Naiad 
M- fhaebe 

15 Xntreprtnante 

16 Sirius 
n Pickle 

18 Neptune 

19 Dreadnought 

20 Defence, 

21 Prince, of Wales 

22 Thunderer 

23 Defiance 
2* Srriftsure, 

25 Revenge 

26 rohrpKemus 

27 Achilles 

28 Colossus 

2B BcUerophon 

30 Tonnant 

31 Mars 

32 BeUeisU, 

33 Royal Sovereign, 

* * j. *~ 29 so 

>, * * * ^ o> t * ^ 

^ 23 3* as 2 27 3* ' 

Tri sion of ViceAl 


Battle of 


2lf<- Oct. 1805 



o,French ships : 

/ Biicftittmre 13 Indomitable 

2 X&ros 1-t Fouaueujc 

3 ifontManc 15 Pluton 

# Dutntay-Trouim IS Alaesiras 

5 formidable n Aigle 

6 Intrfpide if Svriftsure 

7 Sdptan, ia Argonaute, 

8 CornfUe 20 MertricK 
ff Furet 21 Themis 

ID Xortense, 22 Xcrmione 

11 Neptune, 23 Achitln 

12 Redoutoble, 2<t Argus 

* Spanish ships : 

0; Prince desAsturios iSoiv. 

& Argonouto, 

c Son-Sdefonso 

d SJuanSepomuceno 

e, Montanez n-S-Francisco 

f Bahama, ae,Asis 

o jMJonarca o Rayo 



Battle of 

.* August 1798 

/ L' Orient 

2 Tonnant 


* Merc u re 

5 Guillauinr Tell 

6 GeneraLX- 
1 Timoleon 

8 Jusiiff 

9 Diane 

IO I'Artemixe 
it Serialise 
fil Gtierricr- 

13 Conqucraitt 

14 Spartiale 
i~> Aauilan 

6 Peuple Saurmin 

an & Co. Lid. 

Wagner <t"Dpbes'GeogiEstab^Leipsic. 


War on Land. The Americans at first contemplated an attack on Great Britain in Canada, partly in order to please the 

Western States, that had been much harassed by Indian raids, instigated, it was thought, by the British in 

1811. Canada. Tecumseh, leader of the redskins, was defeated by Harrison at Tippecanoe, in November, 1811. This was, 

however, one of the very few American successes on land in that war. It was not before 1814, when a properly trained 

and officered land army had been raised under Brown, Scott, Ripley, and others, that the Americans won the two land 

1814. battles at Chippewa and Lundy's Lane, in July, 1814 ; in the next month, however, the British captured and burned 


War On Sea. In spite of the fact that the Americans, at the outbreak of the war, had, all told, only six larger and six smaller 
vessels, the American captains (chiefly I. Hull, J. Lawrence, Thomas Macdonough, Oliver H. Perry, David Porter, 
John Rodgers) contrived, in five ship-duels in 1812, in four single combats in 1813, and in about seven in 1814 (mostly 
off Chesapeake Bay), as well as in naval engagements of a larger order (in the lakes, see map), to hol'd their own against 
British vessels. The last American success was on January 8, 1815, at New Orleans (west of Pensacola ; not on the 
map), where the British leaders marred the heroism of their men by unpardonable blunders. The engagement of New 
Orleans had been preceded by the Peace of Ghent, December, 1814. 

To face Map 44. 

Reich's Atlas of English History 

75 L.Wett of Greenwich |70 


from 1739 to 1804- 

( except theyears 1775 to 1783) 

Scale 1 40.0OO.OOO 

20O HOP OO JOQ. . 

a \ n S e 


1812 - 1814 

LandonJIacaullanACo. Ltd. 


1807. NOV. Entrance of the French army into Spain for the invasion of Portugal. ABBREVIATIONS. 
Oct. Secret Treaty of Fontainebleau for partition of Portugal. A. = Duke of Albuquerque. (8p.) 

Junot enters Lisbon. Ar. = General Areizaga. (8p.) 

1808. Jan. Spanish fortresses on the border seized by the French. C." = General Cuesta. (8p.) 
Feb. Napoleon demands the cession of districts north of the Ebro, in exchange for Ca = Castafios. (8p.) 

Portugal C1 =ClauseL (Fr.) 

n/f~., T>- i t A jrnr/ij D. = General Lefebre Desnouettes. 

Mar. Riots at Aranjuez and fall of Godoy. (p r .) 

Charles IV. abdicates in favour of his son. Du. = Dupont. (Fr.) 

April. Murat enters Madrid at the head of the French Army, and Ferdinand leaves ? = G^f* 1 G J^ am - ( En -> 
Madrid for France ^ ZS&SZL* (Fr.) 

May. Kiots at Madrid, French massacred. Rioters put down with great cruelty. Ju. = Jourdan. (Fr.) 
Charles IV. surrenders the crown to Napoleon by the Treaty of Bavonne, and L - p - = LA Pefia - < S P ) 
Ferdinand abdicates. J^ = MalZnt ( <K) 

Insurrection of Asturias. Provincial Juntas established. Gallician Junta Mo." = Sir John Moore. (Eng.) 

5 reclaims war and asks for assistance from England. Mu. = Sir John Murray. (Eng.) 

oseph given the crown by Napoleon. = D^'dTp (S 1 

General Lefebre Desnouettes from Pamplona crosses the Ebro and besieges s.' ~2riLa8oi3t(lM^ 

Zaragoza. Su. = Marshal Suchet. (Fr.) 

July. Bessieres defeats Blake and Cuesta at Rio Seco ; Joseph enters Madrid as King. V. = victor. (Fr.) 

Dupont from Cordova to Andujar and Bailen, where he capitulates with Vedel yf; Z siTAfwellestey, Duke of Wei- 

to Castafios and Reding. (On map read Du instead of Z>.) lington. (Eng.) 

Owing to Dupont's defeat, Joseph leaves Madrid. 
Aug. Sir A. Wellesley sails for Corunna and lands his troops in Mondego Bay, marches along the coast, southwards to- 

Roli9a, where he defeats Laborde ; to the Bay of Maceira, where he receives reinforcements ; to Vimeiro where he 

defeats Junot, who has marched via Torres Vedras from Lisbon. Convention of Cintra, by which the French army 

evacuates Portugal. 

Oct. Moore marches from Lisbon through Almeida and Ciudad Rodrigo to Salamanca, thence north to Benevente : meanwhile 
NOV. Napoleon enters Madrid. The battles of Gamonel and Epinosa assure the French communication with Bayonne, and 
Dee. Marshal Lannes inflicts a crushing defeat on the Spaniards at Tudela. Napoleon follows Moore by Benevente, 

where the pursuers are checked, by Sahagun to Astorga, where Napoleon hands over the command to Soult, who 
1809. follows up Moore by Villa Franca, Lugo and Betanzos to Corunna. Battle in which the British are victorious, 

though Moore is slain. 

Formal Alliance between Britain and the supreme Junta of Spain. 

Second siege of Zaragoza by the French. 

1808 DeC.-1809 Feb. The city surrenders after a resistance of the most heroic nature. 

Sebastiani routs Cartoajula at Ciudad Real. Victor routs Cuesta at Medellin on the Guadiana. 

1809. Soult from Corunna to Ferrol marches south to Santiago and Tuy. Being checked by the Portuguese, he marches- 
up-river leaving his base, routs Romana and Silviera, and crosses the river, and marches by Braga to Oporto which he 

Sir Arthur Wellesley concentrates at Coimbra, sends Beresford by Viseu and Lamego to the lower Douro ; himself 
by direct road to Oporto, which he takes. 

Soult retreats by Guimaraens, where he joins Loison, to Orense and the north. 

Wellesley leisurely withdraws to Abrantes on Tagus. Victor, after a futile attempt on Alcantara on the Tagus River 
in Portugal, falls back on Truxillo, and later crosses the River Tagus to Plasencia, whence on Wellesley's advance he 
retires to Talavera. Cuesta meanwhile attacks Merida, but retires across the Guadiana to Zafra, whence he proceeds 
north to Mirabete on the Tagus. Wellesley advances from Abrantes by Castello, Branco, Zarza, Plasencia, Oropesa, 
to Talavera. Victor having retired across the Alberche to Torrejos. Cuesta by Almaraz and Oropesa marches north 
to Velada, and in pursuit of Victor across the Alberche to St. Olalla. 

Joseph from Madrid marches south to Navalcarnero, then going down the Guadarama joins Victor and marches towards 
Talavera, defeating Cuesta near Torrejos. Cuesta retires across the Alberche. Joseph and Victor defeated by 
Wellesley at the battle of Talavera. 

Wellington, hearing of Soult's advance, hastens to Oropesa, where he is joined by Cuesta, who thus leaves Talavera 
open to Victor. Soult from Zamora arrives at Navalmoral. Wellington and Cuesta retire across the river by Arzobispo 
to Deleitosa and Jaraicejo ; Wellington later retiring to Badajoz. In the meanwhile Venegas, failing in an attack on 
Toledo, concentrates at Aranjuez (skirmish against Sebastiani and Joseph), marches to Tembleque, but returns towards 
Almonacid, at which place he is forced to give battle ; he then retires to the Sierra Morena. 

Duke del Parque at Ciudad Rodrigo goes to Tamames where he defeats French, takes Salamanca, enemy retreating 
across Douro. Thence he retires to Alba de Formes, where he defeats French, but after moving forward is 
ordered by the Junta to return, and is defeated with considerable loss at Alba de Formes. 
General Areizaga, completely defeated by the French at Ocafia, retreats to Morena through Villarta. 
Wellington retires from Badajoz to the Portuguese Tagus. 

Third siege of Gerona under Verdier. Town capitulates, and so the French secure communication between Perpignan 
and their Spanish base, Barcelona. 
Wellington at Celerico and Viseu. 

1810. French under Massena recapture Astorga, on to Ciudad Rodrigo, which is held by Herrasti, but eventually capitulates. 
Across the Agueda, invest Almeida, which falls. On to Viseu and Celerico. Meanwhile, Wellington withdraws from 

Viseu through Coimbra to Torres Vedras, but is overtaken by Maasena at Busaco, a ridge just north of Coimbra, and 
a battle takes place, in which Wellington is victorious. Massena follows through Coimbra and Leiria to before Torres 
Vedras, but finding the position too strong, he retires, after six months, recrossing the Tagus at Santarem, to the 

1811. Spanish frontier ; thence northwards through Miranda, Celerico, Guarda and Sabugal. General Albuquerque from 

Mar. Cordova to Cadiz, which he gains just before Victor arrives there and blockades it. 

Allies under La Pena and Graham, owing to adverse winds are unable to land at Tarifa, but land at Algesiras, go to 

Medina Sidonia, then to Barossa. Battle with Victor. Soult from Merida to OHvei^a and Badajoz, which he invests ; 

having taken it he goes south and joins Victor after the battle of Barossa. Immediately after the Allies cross into 

the Isla. 

Wellington follows Massena and returns to the Coa, to Almeida, which he besieges. Massena by Rodrigo to raise 

siege of Almeida, battle at Fuentes d'Onoro, in which both sides claim victory. 

Marmont supersedes Massena. 

Soult, having invaded Estremadura, Wellington goes to the help of Beresford at the Guadiana. Soult goes towards 

Badajoz, but is met by Beresford at Albuera, and after one of the most bloody battles of the war, Soult's beaten army 

1811. retires to Solano. Wellington lays siege to Badajoz, Soult being at Llerena, and Marmont at Rodrigo. Wellington 
withdraws from Albuera behind the Guadiana. Marmont goes to Rodrigo, Wellington following. Marmont retires to 
Valladolid. Wellington takes Rodrigo, 1812, January 19, then Elvas (on map incorrectly Elvaso), and finally Badajoz, 
1812, June 6. 

1810-1811. Suchet captures Lerida, and the following year Tortosa. 
Spanish surprise Figueras under Roviro. 
Suchet takes Tarragona. 

1812. Wellington crosses the Agueda to Salamanca and San Christoval, where he besieges the two forts of Salamanca. 
Marmont having retired from Salamanca to Fuentesauco retires across the Douro, after the capture of the forts 
by Wellington. 

Wellington moves to the Trabancos, south of Tordesillas. Marmont from Toro to Tordesillas, to Nava del Rey, and 
south to Alba. Wellington falling back parallel with him. 

Battle at Los Arapiles, victory of Wellington. Marmont being wounded, Clausel takes the command and retreats 
to Valladolid and Burgos. Wellington follows to Valladolid, but re-crosses the Douro to Cuellar, thence to Madrid, 
returning by Arevalo, crosses the Douro to Palencia, then lays siege to Burgos, in which Clausel has left a garrison, 
after retreating north. 

Failing to take Burgos, Wellington retreats towards the Carrion River to Palencia, where he defeats the French, and 
to the Douro east of Tordesillas, and later falls back by Salamanca to Ciudad Rodrigo. 

1812. Miranda surrenders the Castle of Alba to the French. 

Suchet at Murviedro. Sir John Murray takes Alcoy, and beats Suchet, who has taken Villena, at the battle of the 
Castalla. (On map wrongly Castella ; on blue route read Su instead of S.) 

1813. Wellington reappears before Salamanca, marches to the Douro, to Zamora. 

Joseph from Toro to Burgos. Wellington marches through Toro to Palencia. Joseph and Jourdan march from Burgos 

to Pancorbo, Miranda, and Vittoria. Wellington from Palencia to the Ebro, crossing the river, marches to Vittoria, 

where he routs the French. French retreat to Pamplona. Wellington advances and besieges Pamplona and San 


Soult from Bayonne to St. Jean Pied de Port. Tolosa is taken by Graham and Zaragoza recovered by Mina and 


Soult, from St. Jean through Roncesvalles to Sorauren, defeats Hill at Buenza. A second battle at Sorauren forces 

him to retreat by S. Estevan across the Bidassoa ; being beaten with great loss at the passage of that river. 

Later, having rallied his troops, he makes an attempt to relieve San Sebastian by San Marcial, but failing retires 

towards Bayonne. San Sebastian falls. 

Wellington crosses the Bidassoa. Pamplona surrenders. Wellington crosses the Nivelle, after a battle on that river. 

1814. Allies advance towards Bayonne, which is invested. Soult falling back to Peyrehorade, where he is defeated by 
Wellington, and retreating by Pau and Tarbes, takes up his position at Toulouse. Wellington follows to Toulouse and 
fights him there. 

Meanwhile Bordeaux admits the Allies. Soult signs a Convention for the cessation of hostilities. 
In the north-western, eastern, and southern portions of Spain continuous and heavy fighting went on between the 
French and the Spanish, from 1808 to 1813. 

To face Map 45. 


NAPOLEON'S army in this campaign (125,000 men) was in many ways excellent, in that the rank and file and many of the 
generals were filled with an ardour and enthusiasm scarcely surpassed by the old Revolutionary armies of the French. 
On the other hand, the French army in June, 1815, was suffering from an utter lack of discipline, and hence a fatal 
inclination to panics, caused chiefly by distrust of their leaders. As M. Henry Houssaye says, Napoleon never had in 
hand an " instrument of war" so redoubtable and so fragile. 

Napoleon's plan of campaign was offensive. He thought for a while of taking up a defensive campaign from Paris, as 
his centre, in imitation of his campaign of 1814, having, in 1815, a very much larger army. However, he dreaded the 
political effects of such a measure on his numerous adversaries in France. Accordingly, he adopted offensive methods 
or warfare abroad, and carefully selected the strategic line of Beaumont Charleroi Ligny, as the one line on which 
victorious operations promised to lead to a complete separation of the armies of Wellington and Bliicher. Had 
Napoleon entered Belgium by any other line (say, Lille Ath Brussels, or Cond6 Ath Brussels, see Map No. 42), he 
would have, even in case of victory, only precipitated the junction of Wellington and Bliicher. Everything depended 
on the rapidity of movements. Whilst Napoleon's rapidity was, as usual, greater than that of his opponents, yet 
many a grave mistake (or worse ?) was made by his marshals and generals. Especially, Ney could have easily dispersed, 
if not routed, Wellington's corps at Quatre Bras, where the Duke, until half-past six in the evening of June 16, did 
not dispose of more than 26,000 men, who, had Ney, Reille, and d'Erlon duly concentrated their corps, ought to have 
been attacked by 44,000 French. As a matter of fact, Ney let himself attack at about seven o'clock, when Wellington, 
having received reinforcements, had the superiority of numbers, so that Ney was repulsed. However, Napoleon 
succeeded in defeating Bliicher at Ligny. June 16. Had Ney obeyed Napoleon's orders, and, while fighting Wellington 
at Quatre Bras merely on defensive lines, sent the corps of d'Erlon against the right wing of the Prussian army 
centred round Ligny, Napoleon's victory at Ligny would undoubtedly have been considerably greater, if not decisive 
of the whole campaign. On the next day, June 17, Napoleon ought, by marching on Quatre Bras with the utmost 
rapidity, to have tried to force Wellington, then outnumbered by far, to give battle. This, however, was missed by 
the inexplicable slowness of Napoleon on June 17, by which Wellington won time enough to withdraw towards 

Bliicher's army, after the defeat at Ligny, where the Prussian leader, seventy-three years old, just escaped being made 
captive, and where 87,000 Prussians had been beaten by 65,000 Frenchmen, retreated on two lines towards Wavre 
(see map). Napoleon had sent Grouchy with 33,000 men after Bliicher with sufficiently clear orders to prevent 
Bliicher from joining Wellington. Grouchy, instead of advancing in two columns (1, Walhain Corbais Wavre; 2, 
Mellery Ottignies Wavre) so as to intercept any Prussian corps, made (see map) a ddtour, that drew him off ever 
farther from Napoleon. The mistake was not quite Grouchy's ; it was essentially Napoleon's, who ought, from 
Grouchy's antecedents, to have known that there was no reliance to be placed in Grouchy's initiative or insight. 
On June 18, Napoleon's army confronted that of Wellington in front of Mont St. Jean, Wellington's headquarters 
being at Waterloo, Napoleon's at Belle Alliance. Everything depended on whether Grouchy's corps at Wavre would 
in time join Napoleon's, or whether Bliicher's corps at Wavre would in time reach Wellington's right wing. Grouchy's 
corps did not even attempt to join Napoleon ; Bliicher's corps did ( it is untrue that Wellington had, in the night of 
17th to 18th, gone to see Bliicher at Wavre ), and already at eleven o'clock in the morning Biilow with 9,000 men 
was stationed at Chapelle St. Lambert, while Bliicher's army arrived, in successive instalments, in the course of the 
afternoon. In the evening Napoleon was completely defeated. 

This great campaign consists essentially of two double-battles : (1) Les Quatre Bras Ligny, (2) Wavre Waterloo, 
which are strategically and tactically identical in their conditions. In the first of these double-battles Napoleon 
(N. ) broke up the centre of Bliicher's superior army at Ligny, and since Wellington, from Quatre Bras, did not come 
to the aid of Bliicher, the right and left wing of the Prussian army, although still unshaken, were compelled to join 
in the flight of the Prussian centre. At Waterloo, Napoleon likewise succeeded in taking, at six o'clock in the evening, 
the centre of the Anglo-Dutch army, La Haye Sainte ; but Bliicher, from Wavre, coming to the help of Wellington, 
Napoleon found himself outflanked and practically surrounded, so that the allied generals won a most complete 
victory. For political reasons, Napoleon's victory at Ligny, even had it been quite complete, could not have had the 
moral and military effect of the victory of Waterloo. Napoleon, had he defeated Wellington at Quatre Bras as he 
defeated Bliicher at Ligny, would have still been unable to meet the huge army of the Allies, of over a million men, 
already marching against him in South Germany and on the Rhine. On the other hand, it cannot be denied that 
Napoleon, by a decisive victory over Wellington, either at Quatre Bras, on June 17, or at Waterloo, on June 18, 
would undoubtedly have gained time, perhaps as much as three months that is, till October and in that month he 
might, as we now know, actually have raised, as he said he could, an army of about 800,000 men to meet the Allies. 
By depriving him of the necessary time for raising a new army, the victory at Waterloo placed Napoleon in the 
desperate condition in which he had been in 1814 that is, in a position of being hopelessly outnumbered by his 
opponents, so that his final downfall was, as in 1814, a foregone conclusion. For this reason, Wellington rightly 
abstained from attacking Napoleon on the latter's retreat from Waterloo (see inset map), it being, as at the end of 
March, 1814, quite superfluous to fight battles with a monarch already deserted by his people and possessing no large 

To face Map 46. 

Reich's Alias of English Hlntoi-.v 



1 : KOOO.OOO " ** i n'f *i? i if Miles 



JUNE 1815 
Scalp 1 : 180.0OO 

. 1 1 MI -*- ^m ^^ * it V .Milea 



tltiriliiin If 



~TV J ^GenUnnr ^it/Stucn 
Sort Danu\irtiafs t,^/,''/r 

J W^i^S*. 


London, Macmlllan A Co. Ltd. 

Wagner* Dobes'Goog! Ertab^ Lrtpiic 


Reich's Atlas of Knjjlish History- 


I.nmloii M;i < mill.iu X Co. Ltd. 

Urbca' Oog* Ldabr Lrtpcic 

Reirttfs Alias of English History 

i: AST A K i: i ( \ " 



London, Mac mill an i Co. Ltd. 

VTagner *. Det>es' G> j? Ertib' Lripnc 


Ach. P. 




G., or GOP., 


L. or Lip. 


= Achmed Pasha (Turk.). 
= Bruat (French). 
= Austrian general. 
= Espinasse (French). 

|= Gortchakow (Russian). 

= Korff (Russian). 

= Kotzebue (Russian). 

= Liprandi (Russian). 

= Liiders (Russian). 

= Lyons (English ad- 

= Mentchikow (Russian). 
O.P., orOm. P.= Omer Pasha (Turk.). 
Pask. = Paskiewich (Russian). 

S. = Soimonow ( Russian). 

St. A. = St. Arnaud (French). 

Su. = Surow (Russian). 

W. = Wrangel (Russian). 

after a Roman 

853. Prelude of the War en the Lower Danube. The Russians, in 1853, invaded ABREVIATIONS. 

modern Roumania by Jassi and Leowo, in July, advancing to Ploesci, and still 
nearer to the Austrian frontier, as well as to Bukarest. The Turks, under Omer 
Pasha, met them at Oltenitza, on the Danube. Austria, however, took up such 

1854. a threatening attitude towards Russia, that the Czar Nicholas, seeing that 
Coronini from the west, Omer Pasha, Achmed Pasha, Ismael Pasha, and Espinasse 
from the south, were all advancing against the Russian army (from July to 
November, 1854), decided to withdraw from the lower Danube. 

Now ths Allies (Great Britain, France, Turkey) decided to move on to the 
Crimea. Under Lord Raglan and St. Arnaud the allied fleets, touching the 
Serpent Islands, sailed to Eupatoria, where they arrived in September, 1854. 
The Russian army, that had reached the Crimea by Odessa, Nikolayew, Perekop, 
and Aibar, wanted to bar the way to the Allies, whose objective was Sebastopol. 
However, at the battle of the Alma, September 20, 1854, the Russians were re- 
pulsed, and now a rapid move on'and attack of Sebastopol, which was not sufficiently 
fortified on its southern side, might have given the Allies possession of that 
important place. Lack of union, St. Arnaud's mortal disease, and other causes 
made the Allies miss that efficient measure. Mentchikow retreated to Bakh- 
tchiserai, and the Allies moved round Sebastopol, arriving there only after the 
ingenious Todleben had amply fortified the Russian fortress on her southern 
side too. The siege of Sebastopol began on October 9. Mentchikow, in order 

to relieve the besieged, sends Liprandi against the lines of the Allies (the French commander now being 
Canrobert) north and east of Balaclava, and there, in a murderous battle, in which the 93rd Highlanders, 
under Sir Colin Campbell, covered themselves with glory, the Russians were again repulsed, October 25, 
1854. On November 5, 1854, Mentchikow repeated his attempt, in the battle of Inkerman (where Sir George 
Cathcart was killed), but with no result. The Allies saw that Sebastopol could only be taken by a protracted 
and systematic siege. Omer Pasha was charged with cutting the communications of the Russians towards Perekop ; 
but he failed, despite various attempts, and the Russians could thus freely draw on the resources of their vast country. 

1855. The Allies, too, obtained large reinforcements, so that in April, 1855, they disposed of about 180,000 men. The 
Russians were as numerous. Mentchikow's attack on Eupatoria, February 17, was beaten back ; yet the Allies were 
unable to establish themselves firmly on the north side of Sebastopol, so that the besieged fortress always remained in 
touch with the Russian army outside. The winter of 1854-55 was very severe, and there was bitter suffering in the 
camps of the Allies. In May, 1855, Pelissier was made commander of the French, and to his energy a more active and 
efficient method of terminating the siege was due. Gortchakow attacked the Allies on the Tchernaja River, on 
August 16, 1855, but failed, and now Pelissier decided on taking Sebastopol by determined assaults. The allied fleet 
had, in May, 1855, captured Kertch, and destroyed huge supplies for the Russian army. On September 8, 1855, 
the Malakow was taken by MacMahon (French), and the English troops aiding, Sebastopol was captured. 

Note. The letter C. 
number means Corps. 

To face Map 50. 


FOR MAPS No. -53, 54, 55. 

IN the three maps showing the geographical distribution of British Genius as represented 

by prominent men and women of thought or action, the connection of the locality A. = Authors, 

of birth with the number and quality of British men and women of genius is shown At. = Artists, 

cartographically, on the basis of the data regarding over 28,000 persons given in g- ~ Engravers, 

the 63 volumes of the Dictionary of National Biography, edited by Leslie Stephen \' = inventors, 

and Sidney Lee. It must be remarked that on the maps only about 21,000 J. = Judges, lawyers. 

persons are " distributed " according to counties, the rest being persons whose JJ. == Physicians. 

. . , , T - T ., v, T , ,, i ,, TLr i ^ i i Ms. = Miscellaneous. 

birthplace has not been ascertained. (In .North Wales the letter M ought to be p_ _ p oe t s . 

Me = Merioneth county.) This geographical projection of the growth and Sc. = Scientific men. 

extent of British genius offers to the student a rich material for thought. By So. = |?J diers (army and navy). 

comparing, say, the number of inventors or poets born in two given counties, or tj ~ 

by considering the absence of certain forms of genius in certain counties, many a 

striking correlation between locality and genius can be established. Even if one was to grant that the data of the 

Dictionary of National Biography, are neither complete, nor always absolutely correct ; and admitting, moreover, that 

the locality where a person received his education may occasionally have been of greater importance than his locality 

of birth ; yet there is in a geographical projection of this kind an instructive indication of the prevalent tendencies in 

counties. Thus, it is a telling fact that Monmouthshire produced only two poets of mark, whereas the neighbouring 

Glamorganshire produced eleven. Likewise, Warwickshire, the county of Shakespeare, produced more poets than 

either of its four neighbours to the east, north, and west ; while Denbighshire exceeds, considering its size and 

population, all the other English counties in point of poets. 

Lincolnshire has produced no engraver of mark ; and Huntingdonshire neither an engraver, nor an inventor of 

importance ; while Rutlandshire is lacking in prominent soldiers too. London and Middlesex have been deficient 

especially in inventors and soldiers, both classes forming the smallest portion of persons of genius born in the capital. 

Devonshire, Kent, and Yorkshire are particularly rich in eminent soldiers ; Yorkshire being at the same time very 

prominent by the number of its scientific men. 

The influence of the locality, which is both spiritual, through its historical traditions, and physiological, through its 

climatic and other physical factors, has as yet been so little examined, and the whole question is so much obscured and 

marred by vague considerations of "race," that maps like the present will appear to many rather in the nature of an 

interesting than of an important addition to an historical atlas. It may, however, be remarked, that in such 

geographical projections, most profitably used in botanical, zoological, or pathological geography, there is a power 

of suggestiveness and instruction to which the student's particular attention is herewith called. 

To face Map 53. 

Roiclts Atlaa of E 

M ap showing 


as represented by over 28.000 prominent, 

men and women of th oufe ht o r action 


Reich's Atlas of English Sis Lory 


Ant. Antrim 
Ar. Armagh 
C. farlow 
Ca. Cavan 
Do. ffoirn 
Don. Doneffal 
.Per. Permanaqh 

Leit, Letirini 




Zi. JGZdare 


Ks.CoJGnffs County 
Ld. Londonderry 

Ro. Kascommon- 
SI. J%o 
Tyr. Tyrone 
Wa. Waterfonl 
Wexf . WexfonL 

A 5 

St * 

So 5 
I) 3 

M 2 

Ms 13 

La. s . c2 


A 5 

At i : 

So 5 
J) 7 
P 2 
M 2 
J 1 
Ma 5 

Sr 8 
A 6. 
Si 6( 

So 9 
D 24 
f 6 
M 3 


UK 25 

Ant. 1 


Total: 168 

Map show! ng 


as represented by over 28.000 prominent 

men and women of thought or action 


London, Macmillan <t Co.Ltd. 

Wa6ner<tDebes'Geog? T.stab 1 Leipsic. 


The numbers indicate the numbers of the maps. The two capitals after the numbers (N.E. or N.W. etc.,) mean North 
East (N.E.), North West (N.W.), South East (S.E.), or South West (S.W.), the map being divided, by two 
straight lines imagined to intersect in its central point, into four equal parts. 

AACHEN, see Aix-la-Chapelle 
Ababde, 48, N.W. 
Aballava, 2, N.W. 
Abbeville, 6, N.E. 
Abbotsbury, 19, S.W. 
Abeokuta, 47, S.E. 
Aberconway, 19, N.W. 
Abercorn, 49, N.E. 
Aberdeen, 33, N.E. 
Aberffraw, 4, N.W. 
Abergavenny, 25, S.W. 
Aberystwith, 11, N.W. 
Abingdon, 19, S.E. 
Abrantes, 45, S.W. 
Abu Hammad, 48, N.W. 
Abukir, 43, S.E. 
Abukir, Bay, 43, S.E. 
Abukir Castle, 43, S.E. 
Abukir I., 43, S.E. 
Abyssinia, 48, S.E. 
Acadia, 34, S. W. 
Acapulco, 23, S.W. 
Acescome, 5, S.E. 
23, AcMle (ship), 43, N.E. 
Achingeworde, 5, N.E. 
Ackling Dyke, 2, S.W. 
Adda, 47, S.W. 
Adda, R., 30, S.E. 
Addis Abeba, 48, S.E. 
Aden, 48, N.E. 
Aden, Gulf of, 48, N.E. -S.E. 
Adige, R., 30, S.E. 
Ado, 47, S.E. 
Adrianople, 50, S.W. 
Adriatic Sea, 43, S.E. 
Adua, 48, N.E. 
Ad walton Moor, 24, N.E. 
Aegelesburh, 3, S.E. 
Aegelesford(Aylesford), 3, S.E. 
Aerschot, 30, N.W. 
Aerseele, 28, N.E. 
Afghanistan, 38, N.W. 
Africa, 51, S.W. -S.E. 
12, Africa (ship), 43, N.E. 
7, Agamemnon (ship\ 43 N.E. 
Agde, 13, S.E. 

Agen and the Agenois, 21, S.W. 
Agincourt, 15, N.E. 
Agra, 38, N.W. 

Agramont, 31, N.E. 
Agueda, R., 45, N.W. 
Agulhas, Cape, 49, S.W. 
Agur, 36, S.W. 
Ahmednugger, 36, S.W. 
Aibar, 50, N.E. 
Aicha, 30, N.E. 
17, Aigle (ship), 43, N.E. 
Aiguillon, 14, S.W. 
Aire, 10, N.E. 
Aire R., 24, N.E. 
AirlieCas., 12, N.E. 
Aisne, R., 46, N.W. 
Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), 33, 


5, Ajax (ship), 43, N.E. 
Ajmir, 38, N.W. 
Akassa, 47, S.E. 
Akeman, Str., 2, S.E. 
Akkerman, 50, N.W. 
Ak Poto, 47, S.E. 
Akra, 47, S.W. 
Alabama, R.,44, S.W. 
Alais, 6, S.E. 
Alava, 14, S.W. 
Albany, 34, S.W. 
Alberche, R., 45, N.W. 
Albert Edward Nyanza, 48, 


Albert Nyanza, 49, N.E. 
AIM, 21, S.E. 

Albini, M. de (baron), 8, S.E. 
Albret,6, S.W. 
Albret, Srie. of, 13, S.W. 
Albuera, 45, S.W. 
Alcala, 31, N.W, 
Alcantara, 31, N.W. 
Alchester, 3, S.E. 
Alcluyd, 4, N.W. 
Alcoy, 45, S.E 
Aldborough (Roman Isurium), 

3, N.E. 

Aldenhoven, 41, S.E. 
Aldern, see Auldearn 
Alengon, 6, N.W. 
Aleshki, 50, N.E. 
Alexander (ship), 43, 
Alexandria, 48, N.W. 
Alford, 11, N.E. 
Algeria, 40, S.E. 
Algesiras, 45, S.W. 

16, Algesiras (ship), 43, N.E. 

Algiers, 47, N.E. 

Alicante, 31, S.E. 

Aligarh, 36, N.W. 

Alitone, 5, S.E. 

Alival, 36, N.W. 

Aliwal North, 49, S.E. 

Alkmaar, 21, N.E. 

Allahabad, 36, S.W. 

Alleghany Mts., 39, S.W. 

Aller, R., 34, N.W. 

Alma, R., 50, S.E. 

Almanza, 31, S.E. 

Almaraz, 45, N.W. 

Almarez, 31, N.W. 

Almeida, 45, N.W. 

Almeneches, 7, S.E. 

Almonacid, 45, N.E. 

Alnes, 46, S.W. 

Alnwick, 4, N.E. 

Alost, 30, N.W. 

Alresford, 24, S.E. 

Alsihorne, 5, N.E. 

Alsistone, 5, S.E. 

Alton, 24, S.E. 

Alushta, 50, S.E. 

Alvarez, 31, N.E. 

Alvricestone, 5, S.E. 

Amarante, 45, N.W. 

Amballa, 37, N.E. 

Ambert, 13, S.E. 

Amboise, 21, S.E. 

Amboor, 35, N.E. 

Amboyna, small island (east of 
Celebes), one of the Molucca 
islands. Too small to be 
indicated on Map 51. 

America, North, 52, N.W. 

America, South, 51, S.W. 

Amersfoort, 42, N.E. 

Amiens, 6, N.E. 

Amirante Is. , 52, S. E. 

Amritsar, 37, N.W. 

Amsterdam, 41, N.E. 

Anastro, 14, S.W. 

Ancaster, 3, S.E. 

Ancrum Moor, close to and 
south-west of Roxburgh, 12, 

Andaman Is., 38, S.E. 

Andenne, 41, S.E. 

Anderida, 2, S.E. 
Andover, 3, S.E. 
Andredesceaster (Pevensey), 3, 


Andredesweald, 4, S.E. 
Andujar, 45, S.W. 
Anegada, 34, S.E. 
Anekal, 35, N.W. 
Angers, 6, N.W. 
Angles, 1, N.W. 
Angles, East, 3, S.E. 
Anglesea, 4, N.W. 
Anglia, East, 4, S.E. 
Angola (Portug. territ. ), 49, 


Angoni, 49, N.E. 
Angouleme, 6, S.W. 
Angra Pequena, 49, S.W. 
Angus, 12, N.E. 
Anjou, ComtS de, 6, N.W., 


Annaly, 16, N.E. 
Annandale, 12, S.E. 
Anrias, or the Jtoxxe* (Clan), 

12, N.W. 

Anticosti I. , 34, S. W. 
Antigua, 44, N.W. 
Antipodes Is , 52, S. K. 
Antrim, 29, N.E. 
Antwerp, 41, S.W. 
Apedroc, 5, N.E. 
Aplesham, 5, S.W. 
Appleby,33, S.E. 
Aquae Sulis, 2, S.W. 
15, Aquilon (ship), 43 
Aquitaine, Duchy of, 13, S.W 
Arabat, 50, N.E. 
Arabia, 48, N.E. 
Arabian Desert, 48, N.W. 
Arabian Sea, 36, S.W. 
Arabs, 48, N.W. 
Arabulli Mts., 38, N.W. 
Aranda, 31, N.W. 
Aranjuez, 45, N.W. 
Arapiles, 45, N.W. 
Arbroath, 12, N.E. 
Arcot, 35, N.E. 
Ardee, 29, N.E. 
Ardennes Forest, 41, S.W. 
Ardgower Ho., 12, N.W. 
Ardoch, 2, N.W. 

F 2 


Ardres, 13, N.W. 

Ardvreck Cas., 12, N.W. 

Arevalo, 45, N.W. 

Argaum, 36, S.W. 

Argentan, 6, N.W. 

19, Argonauta (ship), 43. N.E. 

24, Argus (ship), 43, N.E. 

Argyle, 12, S.W. 

Argyll, Earl of, 12, N.W. 

Arklow, 16, S.E. 

Arlon, 41, S.E. 

Armagh, 20, N.E. 

Armagnac, C. of, 6, S.W. 

Arnhem, 41, N.E. 

Ami, 35, N.E. 

Arnsberg, 34, N.W. 

ArosCas., 12, N.W. 

Arquennes, 46, N. W. 

Arques, 10, N.E. 

Arques, R., 7, N.E. 

Arra, 20, S.E. 

Arracan, 36, S.E. 

Arran, 12, S.W. 

Arranls., 22, S.W. 

Arras, 6, N.E. 

Arschot, 33, N.W. 

Artois, Comte of, 13, N.E. 

Arundel, 19, S.E. 

Arvii, 1, S.W. 

Arvon, 4, N.W. 

Arzobispo, 45, S.W. 

Asaba, 47, S.E. 

Ascension I. , 52, S. W. 

Asch, 30, N.W. 

Aschaffenburg, 33, S.E. 

Ashanti, native state at the 

back of the central portion 

of Gold Coast Colony, West 

Africa, 47, S.W. 
Ashdown, 3, S.E. 
Ashington, 4, S.E. 
Ashketyn, 20, S.E. 
Ashta, 36, S.W. 
Asia, 51, N.E. -S.E. 
Asirgarh, 36, S.W. 
Assandun, 3, S.E. 
Assaye, 36, S.W. 
Astarac, C. of, 6, S.W. 
Astorga, 45, N.W. 
Aswan, 48, N.W. 
AtbaraR., 48, N.E. 
Ath, 33, N.W. 
Athelney(Sora.), 19, S.W. 
Athenry, 16, S.W. 
Atherstone, 18, S.E. 
Atherton Moor, see Adwalton 


Athlone, 29, S.E. 
Athol, 12, N.E. 
Atholl, Earl of, 12, N. W. 
Atlantic Ocean, 52, N.W. -S.W. 
Atrebates (1), 1, S.W. 
Atrebates (2), 1, S.E. 
Auch, 6, S.W. 
Auckland, 52, S.E, 
Audacious (ship), 43 
Aughrim, 29, S.W. 
Augsburg, 30, N.E. 
Auldearn (Aldern), see text to 

Map No. 24. 
Aulerci, 1, S.W. 
Aulnay, 13, S.W. 
Aulnes, R., 7, N.E. 
Aumale, 13, N.E. 
Aunay, 7, S.W. 

Auneau, 21, S.E. 
Auray, 14, N.W. 
AureSe. R., 7, N.W. 
Aurungabad, 38, S.W. 
Aust Pass, 3, S.W. 
Australia, 51, S.E. 
Autun, 6, N.E. 
Auvergne, C. of, 6, S.E. 
Auvergne, D. of, 13, S.E. 
Auwasem, 48, N.W. 
Auxerre, 6, N.E. 
Ava, 36, S.E. 
Avallon, 13, N.E. 
Avesnes, 41, S.W. 
Avon, R., 11, N.E. 
Avranches, 6, N.W. 
Avrilly, 7, S.W. 
Aylesbury, 19, S.E. 
Aylesford, 4, S.E. 
Ayr, 12, S.W. 
Azoff, Sea of, 50, N.E. 


Ba-Bisa, 49, N.E. 
Bacau, 50, N.W. 
Badajoz, 31, S.W. 
Badburh (Badbury), 3, S.W. 
Badenoch, 12, N.W. 
Baffin's Ld., 23, N.W. 
Bagamoyo, 48, S.E. 
Bagara, 48, S. W. 
Bahama Is., 52, N.W. 
F. Bahama, (Ship), 43 
Bahrein, I., 52, N.E. 
Bahr el Azrek, (Blue Nile), 48, 


Bahr-el-Ghaz-al, 48, S.W. 
Bailen, 45, S.W. 
Baisy, 46, N.E. 
Bakalahari, 49, S.W. 
Bakhtchiserai, 50, N.E. 
Bakwena, 49, S.W. -S.E. 
Balaklava, 50, S.E. 
Balasore, 36, S.E. 
Balatre, 46, S.E. 
Baldwin the Sheriff, (baron), 

8, S.W. 

Balearic Isles, 40, S.E. 
Baliol, G. de- (baron), 8, N.E. 
Balka, 50, N.E. 
Ballina, 43, N.W. 
Ballinamuck, 43, N.W. 
Ballinasloe, 29, S.W. 
Ballyan, 16, S.E. 
Ballymore, 29, N.E. 
Balmoral, 12, N.E. 
Balnagowan Cas. 12, N. W. 
Balquhain, Cas., 12, N.E. 
Baltimore, 39, S.W. 
Bamborough, 3, N.E. 
Bambrieck, Cas., 12, S.E. 
Bamburgh, 19, N.E. 
Bampton, 3, S.E. 
Banana, 49, N.W. 
Banas, R., 37, N.E. 
Banbury, 3, S.E. 
Bandawe, 49, N.E. 
Bandon, 22, S.W. 
Banff, 12, N.E. 
Bangalore, 35, N.W. 
Bangor, 19, N.W. 
Bangwaketsi, 49, S.W. 
Bangweolo, L., 49, N.E. 

Bann, R., 20, N.E. 
Bannockburn, 33, N.E. 
Banswarra, 37, S.W. 
Banterley, 46, N.E. 
Bantry Bay, 43, N.W. 
Banyai, 49, S.E. 
Bapaume, 15, N.E. 
Bar, 13, N.E. 
Barareta-Galla, 48, S.E. 
Barbadoes, 51, N.W. 
Barbery, 7, S.W. 
Barcelona, 31, N.E. 
Barcelone, C. of, 6, S.E. 
Bardney, 19, N.E. 
Bardsey, 19, S.W. 
Barfleur. 28, S.W. 
Barhampur, 36, S.E. 
Barka, (Turkish), 48, N.W. 
Barnard Castle, 25, N.E. 
Barnet, 18, S.E. 
Barnstaple, 8, S.W. 
Baroda, 37, S.W. 
Barossa, 45, S.W. 
Barotse, 49, N.W. -S.E. 
Barrackpur, 36, S.E. 
Barrett, 16, N.W. 
Barretts, 20, N.E. 
Barrington's Bridge, 20, S.E. 
Barrow, R., 20, S.E. 
Barry Roche, (Clare), 16, S.W. 
Bar-s Seine, 6, N.E. 
Basardjik, 50, S.W. 
Baschurch, 3, S.W. 
Bashukulombwe, 49, N.E. 
Basingwerk, 19, N.W. 
Bassein, 36, S.E. 
Bassein, 36, S.W. 
Basse Wavre, 46, N.E. 
Bastia, 43, S.E. 
Bastogne, 41, S.E. 
Basuto, 49, S.E. 
BasutoLd. 49, S.E. 
Bath, 4, S.W. 
Batha, 47, S.E. 
Bathanceaster, 3, S.W. 
Bathurst, 47, S.W. 
Battle Abbey, 19, S.E. 
Bauge, 15, S.W. 
Bavani, R., 35, N.W. 
Bawtrey, 3, N.E. 
Bayeux, 15, N.W. 
Bayeux, Bp. of, (baron), 8, 


Bayonne, 6, S.W. 
Bazas, 13, S.W. 
Beachy Head, 3, S.E. 
Beam, Vicomte of, 6, S.W. 
Beauch, P., H. de (baron), 8, 

S K 

Beaufort, 13, N.W. 
Beaugency, 6, N.E. 
Beaujeu, 6, S.E. 
Beaulieu, 19, S.E. 
Beaumaris, 11, N.W. 
Beaumont, 46, S.W. 
Beaumont-en-Auge, 7, N.E. 
Beaumont le Roger, 7, N. E. 
Beauvais, 6, N.E. 
Beauvale, 19, N.E. 
Bebbanburh, 3, N.E. 
Bechingetone, 5, S.E. 
Bechuanaland, (Brit. ), 49, 


Bechuanaland, Prot., 49, S.W. 
Bechuawa, 49, S.E. 

BecHellouin, 7, N.E. 
Beddinges, 5, S.W. 
Bedford, 4, S.E. 
Beder, 36, S.W. 
Bedicanford, (Bedford), 3, 


Bedingham, 5, S.E. 
Beeder, 38, S.W. 
BeestonCas., 24, S.W. 
Behar, 38, N.E. 
Beira, 49, S.E. 
Belahoe, 20, N.E 
Belfast, 29, N.E. 
Belgae, 1, S.E. 
Belgae, 1, S.W. 
Belize, 51, N.W. 
Belle Alliance, 46, N.W. 
32, Belleisle, (ships), 43, (N.E.) 
Belleme, 7, S.E. 
Bellencombre, 7, N.E. 
29, Bellerophon, (ship), 43, N.E. 
Beloochistan, 38, N.W. 
Belturbet, 29, N.E. 
Belvoir, Cas. 24, S.E. 
Benares, 38, N. E. 
Benburb, 22, N.E. 
Bender, 50, N.W. 
Bendo, 47, S.W. 
Benefelle, 5, N.W. 
Benefelle, 5, S.W. 
Benevente, 45, N.W. 
Bengal, 38, N.E. 
Bengal, Bay of, 38, S.E. 
Bengazi, 48, N.W. 
Benguella, 49, N.W. 
Ben Nevis, 24, N. W. 
Bennington, 39, N.E. 
Bensington, 3, S.E. 
Benue, R. 47, S.E. 
Beormingas, 3, S. E. 
Berar, 38, N.W.-N.E., S.W. 


Berber, 48, N.E. 
Berbera, 48, S.E. 
Bercham, 5, S.E. 
Berewice, 5, S.E. 
Bergen, (Holland), 43, N.E. 
Bergen, (Germany), 34, S.W. 
Bergen, 0. Z., 33, N.W. 
Bergerac, 6, S.W. 
Beristav, 50, N.E. 
Berkeley, 11, S.W. 
Berkhampstead, 4, S.E. 
Berks, 4, S.E. 
Bermudas, 51, N.W. 
Bernay, 7, S.E. 
Bernicia, 4, N.W. 
Bernicians, 3, N.W. 
Berri, 14, N.E. 
Berry, D. of, 13, N.E. 
Berts, 5, N.W. 
Berwick, 33, N.E. 
20, Berwick, (ship), 43, N.E. 
Betanzos, 45, N.W. 
Bethencourt, 15, N.E. 
Bethune, 41, S.W. 
Bethune,R. 7, N.E. 
Betwa, R. 37, N.E. 
Bettia, 36, N.E. 
Bevedene, 5, S.W. 
Beverley, 19, N.E. 
Bevringetone, 5, S.E. 
Bewcastle, 2, N.W. 
Beziers, 6, S.E. 
Bheelwara, 37, N.W. 


Bhima, R. 38, S.W. 

Bhopal, 36, S.W. 

Bhotan, 38, N.E. 

Bhurtpore, 36, N.W. 

Bidassoa, R. 45, N.E. 

Bielefeld, 34, N.W. 

Bierges, 46, N.E. 

Bignor, 2, S.E. 

Bigod, (baron), 8, S.W. 

Bigorre, C. of, 6, S.W. 

Bigot, Roger, (baron), 8, S.E. 

Bijapur, 38, S.W. 

Bikrampur, 36, S.E. 

Bilbao, 45, N.E. 

Bilsen, 30, S.W. 

Binche, 46, S.W. 

Bindon, 19, S.W. 

Biochest, 5, N.E. 

Birlat, 50, N.W. 

Birmingham, 24, S.E. 

Biscay, Bay of, 14, S.W. 

Biscopestone, 5, S.E. 

Bishareen, 48, N.E. 

Bithaur, 37, N.E. 

Bittlesden, 19, S.E, 

Blackheath, 20, S.W. 

Black Sea, 50, N.E. 

Black Volta, R. 47, S.W. 

Blackwater, fort, in Ireland, 
Tyrone, where O'Neill de- 
feated English. 1598,August ; 
Map 20, N.E. 

Blackwater, R. 22, S.W. 

Blair Athol, 33, N.E. 

Blakeney, 19, N.E. 

Blanchetague, 14, N.E. 

Blanquefort, 15, S.W. 

Blantyre, 49, N.E. 

Blatobulgium, 2, N.W. 

Blaye, 9, S.W. 

Blenheim, 30, N.E. 

Bloemfontein, 49, S.E. 

Blois, 6, N.E. 

Blois, Comt6 of, 6, N.E. 

Blore Heath, 18, N.W. 

Blundert,41, N.W. 

Bodiocasses, 1, S.W. 

Bodmin, 19, S.W. 

Bodotria Aest, 2, N.W. 

Bogelei, 5, S.E. 

Bohemia, 34, N.E. 

Bohun, (baron), 8, S.E. 

Boignee, 46, S.E. 

Bois de Paris, 46, N.E. 

Bois-le-Duc, in Dutch : 'S Her- 
togenbosch, which see. 

Bokhara, 23, S.E. 

Bolan, P. 36, N.W. 

Bolgrad, 50, N.W. 

Bolingbroke, Gas. 24, S.E. 

Bolton, 24, N.W. 

Bolton Gas, 24, N.E. 

Boma, 49, N.W. 

Bombay, 38, S.W. 

Bongo (or Dor), 48, S.W. 

Bongetune, 5, S.W. 

Bonn, 42, S.E. 

Bonne Espe ranee, 46, S.W. 

Bonne Nouvelle, 7, N.E. 

Bonny, 47, S.E. 

Bontegrave, 5, N.E. 

Bonuma, 49, N.E. 

Boran, 48, S. K. 

Borchloen, 30, S.W. 
Bordeaux, (i, S.W. 

Bordertown, 39, N.W. 
Bordesley, 19, S.E. 
Borne, 5, S.E. 
Borneo, 52, S.E. 
Boroughbridge, a little over a 

mile north of Aldborough, 

which see. 

Borthwick Gas. 12, S.E. 
Bossens, 2, S.W. 
Bossu lez Walcourt, 46, S.W. 
Boston, 39, N.E. 
Boston, (Line.), 19, N.E. 
Bos worth, 18, S.E. 
Bothwell, Gas. 12, S.W. 
Bothwell Bridge, quite close to 

and north of Hamilton, 33, 


Bouchain, 41, S.W. 
Boulogne, 6, N.E. 
Bourbon, 6, N.E. 
Bourbon, Srie. of, 6, S.E. 
Bourbonnais, D. of, 13, S.E. 
Bourg, 15, S.W. 
Bourges, 6, N.E. 
Bourke, (clan) 16, N.W. 
Bousval, 46, N.E. 
Bouvines, 9, N.E 
Boxley, 19, S.E. 
Boxtel, 41, N.E. 
Boyne, R. 29, N.E. 
Boaen, 30, S.E. 
Brabant, 14, N.E. 
Braddock Down, 24, S.W. 
Bradewatre, 5, S.W. 
Bradford, 4, S.W. 
Brading, 2, S.E. 
Braemar Gas. 12, N.E. 
Braga, 45, N.W. 
Brahmaputra, R. 38, N.E. 
Braila, 50, N.W. 
Braine 1'Alleud, 46, N.W. 
Braine, le Comte, 46, N.W. 
Bramham Moor, close to and 

west of Towton, 18, N.E. 
Branbertei, 5, N.E. 
Brancaster, 3, S.E. 
Brandy wine, 39, N.W. 
Branne, 15, S.W. 
Branodunum, 2, S.E. 
Brantome, 14, S.W. 
Bravoniacum, 2, N.W. 
Bray, 15, N.E. 
Breadalbane, 12, N.W. 
Breany, 16, N.W. 
Brechin, 12, N.E. 
Brecknock, 11, N.W. 
Brecon, 2, S.W. 
Breda, 41, N.W. 
Brehal, 7, S.W. 
Brembre, 5, S.W. 
Bremen, 34, N.W. 
Bremenium, 2, N. W. 
Bremervorde, 34, N.W. 
Bremetennacum, 2, N.W. 
Brenneville, wrong name for 

Br^mule, in Department 

Eure, France, 7, N.E. 
Brentford, 24, S.E. 
Bresles, R. 7, N.E. 
Bressuire, 10, S.W. 
Brest, 14, N.W. 
Breteuil, 7, S.E. 
Bretigny, 14, N.E. 
Brickland, Lough, 29, N.E. 
Bricquebec, 7, N.W. 

Bridge water, 19, S.W. 
Bridgnorth, 11, N.W. 
Brielle, 21, N.E. 
Brienne, 6, N.E. 
Brigantes, 1, N.W. 
Brigantes, 1, S.W. 
Brigham, near Berwick, which 


Brighton, 25, S.E. 
Brihuega, 31, N.W. 
Brionne, 7, N.E. 
Briouze, 7, S.W. 
Bristelmestune, 5, S.W. 
Bristol, 11, S.W. 
Bristol Channel, 18, S.W. 
Britanni, 1, S.W. 
11, Britannia, (ship), 43, N.E. 
Britanny, see Brittany. 
British Columbia, 52, N.W. 
British Isles, 23, N.E. 
British, Protect. 48, N.E. 
Briton, Cape, 34, S.W. 
Brittany, 6, N.W. 
Brittany, Alan of, (baron), 8, 

Brittany, J. Duke of, (baron), 

8, N.E. 

Broad Haven, 22, N.W. 
Brockley, Ho. 3, S.E. 
Brock's mon. 44, S.E. 
Brodick, Cas. 12, S.W. 
Brooklyn, 39, N.E. 
Brosna, R. 22, S.E. 
Brough, 2, N.E. 
Bruce, (baron) 8, N.E. 
Bruenne, 19, S.E. 
Bruges, 21, N.E. 
Bruis, R. de (baron) 8, N.E. 
Bruisyard, 19, S.E. 
Brunnanburh, 3, N.E. 
Brunswick, 34, N.W. 
Brussels, 46, N.W. 
Bryanburh, 2, S.E. 
Brye, 46, N.E. 
Brynglas, in Radnorshire, 

1, Bucenlaure, (French ship), 

43, N.E. 

Buchan, 12, N.E. 
Buchanans, (clan), 12, S.W. 
Bud, Rob. de, (baron), 8, S.E. 
Buckfast, 19, S.W. 
Buckingham, 4, S.E. 
Buckland, 19, S.W. 
Builth, 11, N.W. 
Buenza, 45, N.E. 
Build was, 19, S.W. 
Bukarest, 50, N.W. 
Bulawayo, 49, S.E. 
Bunkerhill, 39, N.E. 
Burford, 18, S.E. 
Burgelstaltone, 5, S.E. 
Burgemere, 5, S.W. 
Burgh, Cas. 3, S.E. 
Burgham, 5, S.E. 
Burghley Ho, 24, S.E. 
Burgh-on-Sands, 12, S.E. 
Burgos, 4,">, N.W. 
Burgundy, 14, N.E. 
Burgundy, D. of, 13, N.E. 
Burhampur, 36, S.W. 
Burkes, 20, N.E. 
Burlington, 39, N.W. 
Burmah, 36, S.E. 
Burnham Norton, 19, N.E. 

Burode, 37, S.E. 
Burton, 3, S. K. 
Burton-on-Tr. 19, S.E. 
Bury St. Kdm. 3, S. K. 
Busaco, 45, N.W. 
Bushmen, 49, S.W.-S.E. 
Busli, R. de, (baron), 8, N.E. 
Bussa, 47, S.E. 
Butler, (clan), 16, S.E. 
Buxar, 35, S. \V. 
Buxton, 2, N.W. 
Buzeu, 50, N.W. 
Byland, 19, N.E. 

Cabinda, 49, N.W. 
Cabul, 38, N.W. 
Cachar, 36, S.E. 
Cadiz, 45, S.W. 
Cadsand, 33, N.W. 
Caen, 6, N.W. 
Caerlaverock, 20, N.W. 
Caerlaverock Cas. 12, S.E. 
Caerlon, 3, S.W. 
Caermarthen, 3, S.W. 
Caernarvon, 11, N.W. 
Caerphilly, 11, S.W. 
Caerwent, 4, S.W. 
Caesar's Camp, 41, S. W. 
Cahors, 21, S.E. 
GaicosI, 52, N.W. 
Caint, 3, S.E. 
CairnbulgCas., 12, N.E. 
Cairo, 48, N.W. 
Caistor, 4, N.E. 
CaistorSt. Edm., 3, S.E. 
Calais, 18, S.E. 
Calcaria, 2, N.E. 
Calcutta, 38, N.E. 
Calder, 19, N.W. 
Caledonia, 2, N.W. 
Caledonii, 1, N.W. 
Calicut, 38, S.W. 
Calleva Atrebatum, 2, S.E. 
Calvados, 7, S.W. 
Calvi, 43, S.E. 
Calvintone, 5, S.E. 
Calvrestot, 5, N.E. 
Cambay, Gulf of, 38, N.W. 
Cambodunum, 2, N.W. 
Camboricum, 2, S.E. 
Cambrai, 46, N.W. 
Cambremer, 7, N.E. 
Cambridge, 39, N.E. 
Cambushkenneth, 12, S.W. 
Camden, 39, S.W. 
Camelford, 4, S.W. 
Cameron, (clan) 12, N.W. 
Campbell Cas., 12, S.E. 
Campbell I., 52, S.E. 
Campbells, (clan) 12, N.W. 
Camperdown, 27, N.E. 
Campo, Major, 31, S.W. 
Camulodumim, 2, S.E. 
Canada, 39, N.W. 
Cancale Bay, 34, N.E. 
Cance, R., 7, S.W . 
Canjam, 36, S.E. 
Canovium, 2, N.W. 
Canterbury, 8, S.E. 
Cantii, 2, S.E. 
Cantwaraburh, 3, S.E. 


Cantyre, Mull of, 22, N.E. 
Cany, 14, N.W. 
Cape Breton, see Briton 
Cape Coast Castle, 47, S.W. 
Cape Colony, 52, S.E. 
Cape Fear, R., 39, S.W. 
Cape Finisterre, 40, S.W. 
Cape of Good Hope, 49, S.W. 
Cape Passaro, see Passaro. 
Cape Town, 49, S.W. 
Cappuck, 2, N.W. 
Carberry, 20, S.E. 
Carbisdale, near the Kile 

(Forth) of Sutherland, 12, 


Carcassonne, 13, S.E. 
Cardigan, 18, S.W. 
Cardigan Bay, 24, S.W. 
Carentan, 7, N.W. 
Carham, 3, N.W. 
Caribbean Sea, 34, S.W. 
Carisbrook Castle, 25, S. E. 
Carlat, 13, S.E. 
Carlat, Vic. of, 9, S.E. 
Carlingford, 29, N.E. 
Carlingford, L , 22, N.E. 
Carlisle, 3, N.W. 
Carlow, 16, S.E. 
Carmarthen, 19, S.W. 
Carnarvon, see Caernarvon. 
Carnatic, 38, S.W. 
Carnsore, Pt., 22, S.E. 
Carolina, North, 39, S.W. 
Carolina, South, 39, S.W. 
Carrick Gas. 12, S.W. 
Carrickfergus, 22, N.E. 
Carrik, 22, S.E. 
Carrion, R., 45, N.W. 
Cartagena, 40, S.E. 
Cartagena, (Spain) 31, S.E. 
Cashel, 29, S.E. 
Cashmere, 38, N.W. 
Cassel, 34, N.W. 
Cassel, (Neth.), 41, S.W. 

Casses,{.Jl, S . E . 

s - w - 

Cassi, 1, S.W. 
Castella, 45, S.E. 
Castello Branco, 45, N.W. 
Caster, 34, N.W. 
Castillon, 6, S.W. 
Castlebar, 43, N.W. 
Castleford, 3, N.E. 
Castor, 3, S.E. 
Castres, 13, S.E. 
Castres, C. of, 13, S.E. 
Cataractonium, 2, N.W. 
Gateau Cambresis, 21, N.E. 
Cattegat, 43, N.E. 
Catterick, 3, N.E. 
Cattrail, The, 3, N.W. 
Catuvellauni, 1, S.W. 
Cauci, 1, N.W. 
Causennae, 2, S.E. 
Cavan, 22, N.E. 
Cavery, R., 35, N.W. 
Cawnpur, 37, N.E. 
Caya, R. 31, S.W. 
Celerico, 45, N.W. 
Celle, 34, N.W. 
Celts, 1, S.W., S.E. 
Cengeltune, 5, S.W. 
Cenimagni, 1, S.W. 

Cenomani Eburo vices, 1, S.W. 
Central Africa, British, 49, 


Cerdagne, 13, S.E. 
Cerdigesford, (Charford) 3, 


Ceredigion, 4, S.W. 
Cerences, 7, S.W. 
Cerisy Belle fitoile, 7, S.W. 
Cerisy la Foret, 7, N.W. 
Cerlocestone, 5, S.E. 
Cerne, 19, S.W. 
CessfordCas. 12, S.E. 
Cetelingei, 5, S.E. 
Ceylon, 51, S.E. 
Chad, L. 47, S.E. 
Chagos Is., 52, S.E. 
Chalais, 15, S.W. 
Chalgrove, 24, S.E. 
Chalon, 6, N.E. 
Chalons, 6, N.E. 
Chalus, castle, south-west of 
and close to Limoges, 6, S.E. 
Chama, 47, S.W. 
Chamba, 36, N.W. 
Chambal, R., 36, S.W. 
Chambois, 7, S.E. 
Champagne, C. of, 13, N.E. 
Champlain, L., 44, N.E. 
Chandari, 37, S.E. 
Chandernagore, 38, N.E. 
Channel Is., 51, N.W. 
Chapelle, St. Lampert, 46 


Charente, R. 9, S.W. 
Charenton, 46, N.W. 
Charentonne, R.,7, S E. 
Charleroi, 41, S.W. 

Charleston, 39, S.W. 

Charlotte, 39, S.W. 

Charmouth, 25, S.W. 

Charolles, 13, S.E. 

Chartres, 6, N.E. 

Chateau Chinon, 13, N.E. 

Chateaudun, 6, N.E. 

Chateau Gaillard, 10, N.E. 

Chateau Neuf, 6, N.E. 

Chateauroux, 6, N.E. 

Chatelet, 46, S.E. 

Ch&tellerault, 6, N.W. 

Chatham Is., 51, S.E. 

Chatillon, 6, N.E. 

Chatillon, also Castillon (battle 
1453), which see. 

Chattan, (clan) 12, N.W. 

Chaudiere, R., 39, N.E. 

Chaumont, 6, N.E. 

Chauvigny, 14, N.W. 

Cheadle, 33, S.E. 

Cheduba, 36, S.E. 

Chedworth, 2, S.E. 

Chelmsford, 25, S.E. 

Cheltenham, 18, S.E. 

Chemere, 5, S.W. 

Chenab, R., 38, N.W. 

Chengama, 35, N.E. 

Chepstow, 11, S.W. 

Cherbourg, 28, S.W. 

Cherny, 15, N.E. 
,Cher, R., 14, N.E. 

Cheriton, at Alresford, which 

Chertsey, 21, N.W. 

Chesapeake Bay, 44, S.E. 

Chester, 18, N.W. 

Chesterford, 2, S.E. 
Chester le Street, 2, N.E. 
Chester, St. Werburgh, 19, 


Cheviot Hills, 33, N.E. 
Chichester, 19, S.E. 
Chievres, 28, N.E. 
Chilambrum, 35, N.E. 
Childeltune, 5, S.W. 
Chillian wallah, 36, N.W. 
Chimay, 42, S.W. 
Chindwin, R., 38, N.E. 
Chinese Empire, 38, N.E. 
Chingelpat, 35, N.E. 
Chingestone, 5, S.W. 
Chinon, 15, S.W. 
Chinsura, 35, S.W. 
Chippe, R., 7, S.E. 
Chippenham, 3. S.W. 
Chippewa, 44, S.E. 
Chirkari, 37, N.E. 
Chirk Castle, 25, S.W. 
Chisholms, (clan) 12, N.W. 
Chitambo, 49, N.E. 
Chi tor, 36. S.W. 
Chittagong, 38, N.E. 
Chittaput, 35, N.E. 
Cholet, 10, S.W. 
Christiansborg, 47, S.W. 
Christmas!., 52, S.E. 
Christmas I., 52, S.W. 
Cifuentes, 31, N.E. 
Cilletone, 5, N.W. 
Ciney, 41, S.E. 
Cintra, 45, S.W. 
Circars, 38, S.E. 
Cirenceaster, (Cirencester) 3, 


Cirencester, 18, S.E. 
Cissanceaster, (Chichester) 3, 


Ciudad Rodrigo, 45, N.W. 
Clain, R., 14, N.W. 
Clair-on-Epte, see St. Clair- 

Claitune, 5, S.W. 
Clandboy, 20, N.E. 
Clanricarde, Earldom of, 20, 

S F 1 

Clanwilliam, 16, S.W. 
Clare, 22, S.W. 
Glare, (baron) 8, N.E. 
Clare, Rich, de, (baron) 8. 

Clarendon, south of and close 

to Salisbury, 3, S.E. 
Clausentum, 2, S.E. 
Claveham, 5, S.E. 
Claverhouse Gas., 12, N.E. 
Cleeve, 19, S.W. 
Cleres, 7, N.E. 
Clermont, 6, N.E. 
Clermont, 6, S.E. 
Clew Bay, 22, N.W. 
Cliffland, 3, N.E. 
Clifford, (baron) 8, N.W. 
Clifton, (Westmoreland) 33, 


Clonmacnoise, 16, N.E. 
Clonmel, 29, S.E. 
Clontarf, 16, N.E. 
Clopeham, 5, S.W. 
Clota Aest., 2, N.W. 
Clyde, Firth of, 33, N.E. 
Clyde, R., 33, N.E. 

Clydesdale, 12, S.W. 
Coa, R., 45, N.W. 
Cobham, 11, S.E. 
Coblenz, 34, S.W. 
Cocheham, 5, S.W. 
Cocherel, 14, N.W. 
Cochin, 38, S.W. 
Cocos Is., (Keeling) 52, S.E. 
Codeham, 5, S.W. 
Coggeshall, 19, S.E. 
Cognac, 14, S.W. 
Coimbatore, 35, N.W. 
Coimbra, 45, N.W. 
Colchester, 3, S.E. 
Colchester, (St. John's), 19, 


Coldingham, 3, N.W. 
Coleraine, 22, N.E. 
Coleroon, R., 35, N.E. 
Cologne, 41, S.E. 
Colombo 38, S.W. 
Colon, 44, N.W. 
28 Colossus, (ship) 43, N.E. 
Colt Bridge, 33, N.E. 
Columbia, 39, S.W. 
Combe, 19, S.E. 
Combermere, 19, N.W. 
Combraille, 13, S.E. 
Cominges, C. of, 6, S.E. 
Comorin, C. 38, S.W. 
Compiegne, 15, N.E. 
Conches, 7, S.E. 
Concord, 39, N.E. 
Conde, 41, S.W. 
Condom, 9, S.W. 
Congo, French, 49, N.W. 
Congo, R., 48, S.W. 
Congo State, 47, S.E. 
Conjeveram. 35, N.E. 
Connaught, 43, N.W. 
Connecticut, 39, N.E. 
Connecticut R., 39, N.E. 
Connemara, 16, N.W. 
Connemara Mts., 22, N.W. 
13, Conqutrant (ship) 43. 
3, Conquf.ror, (ship) 43, N.E. 
Constance, L. of, 30, S.E. 
Constantinople, 50, S.W. 
Contone, 5, S.E. 
Conway Rhuddlan, 11, N.W. 
Cooloney, 43, N.W. 
Copenhagen, 43, N.W. 
Corbach, 34, N.W. 
Corbais, 46, N.E. 
Corbeil, 15, N.E. 
Corbie, 6, N.E. 
Corbiesdale, see Carbisdale. 
Cordova, 45, S.W. 
CorfeCas., 24, S.W. 
Coriondi, 1, N.W. 
Coriosolites, 1, S.W. 
Coritani, 1, N.W. 
Cork, 40, N.W. 
Cork Harbour, 22, S.W. 
Cormeilles, 7, N.E. 
8, Corntlie, (ship) 43, N.E. 
Corneville, s. Risle, 7, N.E. 
Cornovii, 1, N.W. 
Cornovii, 1, S.W. 
Cornwall, Ed. of, (baron) 8, 


Cornwealan, 3, S.W. 
Coromandel Coast, 38, S.W. 
Corrib, Lough, 16, N.W. 
Corry Arrack, 33, N.E. 


Corsica, 43, S.E. 
Corstopitmn, 2, X.W. 
Corunna, 45, N.\V. 
Cosne, 15, S. E. 
Cossimbazar, 35, S.W. 
Cotentin, 14, N.W. 
Coucy, 6, N.E. 
Coulommiers, 15, N.E. 
Courcy, 7, S.E. 
Courtrai, 41, S.VV. 
Coutances, 7, S.W. 
Coutras, 21, S.\V. 
Coventry, 33, S.E. 
Cowpens, 39, S.W. 
Cradock, 49, S.E. 
Craigmillar Cas. , 12, S.E. 
Craignethan Cas., 12, S.W. 
CraignishCas., 12, S.W. 
Cramond, 2, N.W. 
Cr^cy, 13, N.E. 
Crediton, 4, S.W. 
Crefeld, 34, N.W. 
Cregganfoid, (Creyford) 3, 

Crepy, 6, N.E. 

Creully, 7, N.W. 

Crevant, 15, S.E. 

Crichton Cas. , 12, S.E. 

Crieff, 33, N.E. 

Crimea, 50, S.E. 

Crixjrin, Milo, (baron) 8, S.E. 

Cropredy Bridge, 24, S.E. 

Crowland, 4, S.E. 

Crown Point, 39, N.E. 

Croxden, 19, N.E. 

Croyland, 19, S.E. 

Cmce Nuyent, (clan) 16, N.E. 

Cuba, 34, S.W. 

Cuddalore, 35, N.E. 

Cuellar, 45, N.W. 

Cuenga, 31, N.E. 

Culloden, (ship) 43. 

Culloden Moor, 33, N.E. 

Cumbe, 5, S.W. 

Cumberland, 33 S.E. 

Cumberland Sd.', 23, N.W. 

Cumbhire, 19, S.W. 

Cumbrians, 3, N.W. 

Cunetio, 2, S.E. 

Cura9ao, 44, N.W. 

Cutch, 38, N.W. 

Cutch, Gulf of, 38, N.W. 

Cutch, Rann of, 38, N.W. 

Cuttack, 38, S.E. 

Cyprus, 52, N.E. 

Cysoing, 41, S.W. 

Czernaya, dl., 50, N.E. 


Dacca, 38, N. E. 
Dadur, 36, N.W. 
Daegsastan, (Dawston) 3, 


Dagarakha, 47, S.W. 
Dahlak I. 48, N.E. 
Dahomey (French terr. ), 47, 

S.E. ' 

Dalintone, 5, N.E. 
Dulwhinnie, 33, N.E. 
Damara Land, 49, S.W. 
Damietta, 48, N. W. 
Dammartin, 6, N.E 

Daiiiine, 10, N.E. 
Diimnonii, 1, N.\\'. 
D.unnoiiium Pr. 2, S.W. 
Damville, 15, N.E. 
Danelaw, (Danelagh), The, 4, 


Danes, 1, N.W. 
Dangan Hill, 22, N.E. 
Danube, R. 50, N.W. 
Danum, (Doncaster), 3, N.E. 
Dar es Salaam, 48, S.E. 
Dar Fur, 48, N.W. 
Darmstadt, 30, N.E. 
Darra, 48, S.W. 
Dartmouth, 20, S.W. 
Daventry, 18, S.E. 
D'Avranchet, Hugh (baron), 8, 


Dawa. R. 48, S.E. 
Dawston, 3, N.W. 
De Aar JC. 49, S.W. 
Deal, 4, S.E. 
de Bevrere, Drogo (baron), 8, 


Deceangi, 2, N.W. 
Decies, 20, S.E. 
de Creux, Cape, 40, S.E. 
Deerham, 3, S.W. 
Dee River, 25, S.W. 
20 Defence (ship), 43, N.E. 
23 Defiance (ship), 43, N.E. 
Defnasaetan, 3, S.W. 
De Gata, Cape, 40, S.E. 
Deheubarth, 4, S.W. 
Dehra, 36, N.W. 
Deira, 4, N.E. 
Deirans, 3, N.E. 
Delaware, 39, S.W. 
Delaware B. 39, S.W. 
Delaware, R. 39, N.W. 
Deleitosa, 45, S.W. 
Delft, 42, N.W. 
Delhi, 36, N.W. 
Delvin, 20, N.E. 
Demerara, 44, N.E. 
Demetae, 2, S.W. 
Denbigh, 19, N.W. 
Dender, R. 30, S.W. 
Dene, 5, S.E. 
Denia, 31, S.E. 
Denka, (2) 48, S.W. 
Denmark, 43, N.E. 
Denny, 19, S.E. 
Deoghaum, 36, S.E. 
Deorham, 4, S.W. 
Dera, 36, N.W. 
Derby, 33, S.E. 
Derbyshire, 33, S.E. 
Derentune, 5, S.W. 
Derg. L. 16, S.W. 
Derry, 20, N.E. 
Desmond, 20, S.W. 
Detmold, 34, N.W. 
Dettingen, 33, S.E. 
Deva, (Chester), 3, N.W. 
Deventer, 41, N.E. 
Devizes, 11, S.E. 
Deynze, 28, N. E. 
Dholapur, 36, N.W. 
9 Diane (ship), 4.3, 
Dicelinges, 5, S. \\. 
Die, 13, S.E. 
Dieppe, 7, N.E. 
Diest, 41, S.E. 
Dieulacres, 19, N. E. 

Dijon, (5, N.E. 

Dillingen, 30, N. K. 

Dilloo, 10, X.E. 

Dinant, 28, S. E. 

Diiiiipur, :<;, S.E. 

Uindigul, 35, S.W. 

Dinevwr, 4, S.W. 

Dingle, 16, S.W. 

Dion le Mont, 46, N.E. 

Dwpennator, Rob. (baron), 8, 

ItixiH-iiMatof, Rob. (baron), 8, 


Diu 1. (Portuguese), 38, N.W. 
Diumma, 47, S.W. 
Dives R. 7, S.E. 
Dixmude, 28, N.E. 
Dnieper R. 50, N. E. 
Dniester R. 50, N.W. 
Dobrudja, 50, N.W. 
Dobuni, 2, S.W. 
Dogger Bank, 40, S.E. 
d'Oilti, R. (baron), 8, S.E. 
Dol. 6, N.W. 
Dotfin son of Gospatric (baron), 

8, N.W. 

Domfront, 9, N.W. 
Dominica, 51, N.W. 
Donabue, 36, S.E. 
Donachy or Robertsons (clan), 

12, N.W. 

Donai, W. de (baron), 8, S.W. 
Donald Lonth (clan), 12, S.W. 
DonanCas., 12, N.W. 
Donauworth, 30, N.E. 
Doncaster, 4, N.E. 
Donegal, 16, N.W. 
Donegal Bay, 29, N.W. 
Dongola (Old), 48, N.W. 
Donnington Castle (marked 

D.), 24, S.E. 
Donnove, 29, N.E. 
Donzy, 6, N.E. 
Dor (Bongo), 48, S.W. 
Dorchester, 3, S.W. 
Dordogne, R. 21, S.E. 
Dordrecht, 41, N.W. 
Dore, 19, S.W. 
Dormans, 21, N.E. 
Dorsaetan, 3, S.W. 
Douai, 10, N.E. 
Doubs, R., 6, N.E. 
Douglas Cas., 12, S.W. 
DouneCas., 12, S.W. 
Douro, R. 31, N.W. 
Dover, 3, S.E. 
Down, 16, N.E. 
Downham Market, 25, S.E. 
Downpatrick, 22, N.E. 
Downs, The, 27, S.E. 
Drake's Bay, 23, S.W. 
19 Dreadnought (ship), 4.3, 


Dreux, 6, N.E. 
Driencourt, 7, N.E. 
Drogheda, 29, N.E. 
Droitwich, 19, S.W. 
Dromore, 29, N.E. 
Drumlanrig Cas., 12, S.W. 
Drummond Cas., 12, S.W. 
DuartCas., 12, N.W. 
Dublin, 29, S.E. 
Dubrae, 2, S.E. 
Duchray Cas., 12, S.W. 
Duclair, 7, N.E. 

Dudley, 11, N.W. 

Duero, R. 31, N.W. 

4 Diujuay Rouim (ship), 43, 

X. K. 

Duleek, 22, N.E. 
Dumbarton, 20, N.W. 
Dumfries, 33, N.E. 
Dunmonii, 2, S.W. 
Dunaverty Cas. , 12, S.W. 
Dunbar, 33, N.E. 
Dundalk, 29, N.E. 
Dundee, 12, N.E. 
Dunfermline, 12, S.E. 
Dungannon, 16, N. E. 
Dungarvan, 22, S.E. 
Dungeness, 27, S.W. 
Dunkerque, 21, N.E. 
Dunkeswell, 19, S.W. 
Dunkirk, 41, S.W. 
Dunolly Cas., 12, N.W. 
Dunoon Cas., 12, S.W. 
Dunottar Cos., 12, N.E. 
DunphailCas.. 12, N.W. 
DunrobinCas., 12, N.W. 
Dunse Law, 24, N.W. 
Dunstable, 3, S.E. 
Dunstaffhage Cas., 12, N.W. 
Dunster Cas., 24, S.W. 
Duntroon Cas., 12, S.W. 
DunureCas , 12, S.W. 
Dunwich, 19, S.E. 
Dupplin, 12, S.E. 
Duquesne, Fort, 34, S.W. 
Durban (Port Natal), 49, S.E 
Diiren, 41, S.E. 
Durham, 33, S.E. 
Durnovaria, 2, S.W. 
Durobrivae, 2, S.E. 
Durocata or Launi, 1, S.E. 
Durocornovium (Corinium), 2, 


Durolipons, 2, S.E. 
Durotriges, 2, S.W. 
Durovernum, 2, S.E. 
Diisseldorf, 34, N.W. 
Dyfed, 4, S.W. 
Dyle, R. 46, N.E. 

East Africa (Brit.), 48, S.E. 
East Africa (German), 48, S.W. 


East Anglia, 4, S.E. 
East London, 49, S.E. 
Eastry, 11, S.E. 
Ebbsneet, see Eopwines Fleot. 
Ebchester, 2, N.W. 
Ebro, R., 31, N.E. 
Eburacum (Colonia), 2, N.E. 
Eccleshall, 18, N.E. 
Ecouche, 7, S.E. 
Edgecote, 18, S.E. 
Edgehill, 24, S.E. 
Edinburgh, 20, N.W. 
Edington, 4, S.W. 
Eecloo, 41, S.W. 
Egypt, 52, N.E. 
Eilean, 12, N.W. 
Eindhoven, 41, N.E. 
Eisenach, 34, N.W. 
Elba, I. of, 43, S.E. 
Elbe, R., 34, N.E. 
Eldretune, 5, S.W. 



El Fasher, 48, N.W. 

ElFayum, 48, N.W. 

Elgin, 12, N.E. 

Ellandun, 3, S.W. 

Ellice Is, 52, S.W. 

Elmet, Forest of, 3, N.E. 

Elmham, 4, N.E. 

El Obeid, 48, N.W. 

ElOrdeh, 48, N.W. 

Elsineur, 43, N.E. 

Elvas, 31, S.W. 

Ely, 3, S.E. 

Ely, Bishop of (baron), 8, S.E. 

Ely (Ireland), 20, S.E. 

Ems, R., 34, N.W. 

Enghien, 28, N.E. 

Engle, Middle, 3, S.E. 

Engle, Sth., 3, S.E. 

Engle, W., 3, S.E. 

English Channel, 18, S.E., 


Ennis, 22, S.W. 
Enniscorthy, 22, S.E. 
Eiiniskillen, 29, N.E. 
Ensham, 3, S.E. 
15 Entreprenante, (ship), 43, 


Eoforwick (York), 3, N.E. 
Eopwines Fleot, 3, S.E. 
Epte, R., 7, N.E. 
Epworth, 19, N.E. 
Equenne, R., 7, S.W. 
Erie, L., 44, N.W. 
Eringeham, 5, S.W. 
Erinpura, 37, N.W. 
Ermine, St., 2, S.E. 
Erne, L., 29, N.E. 
Erne, R., 29, N.W. 
Erode, 35, N.W. 
Erythrea (Italian terr.), 48, 


Escaut, R., 10, N.E. 
Esdene, 5, S.E. 
Esla, R., 45, N.W. 
Esmerewic, 5, S.W. 
Esna, 48, N.W. 
Esptechin, 14, N.E. 
Essay, 7, S.E. 
Essequibo, 40, N.W. 
Essete, 5, S.E. 
Essex, Swein de (baron), 8, 


Essey, 15, N.W. 
Essingtune, 5, S.W. 
Estouteville, 7, N.E. 
Estrat, 5, S.W. 
Ettrick, R., 25, N.W. 
Etampes, 6, N.E. 
Etaples, 21, N.E. 
Etaw Springs, 39, S.W. 
Ethandun, 3, S.W. 
Etune, 5, S.W. 
Eu, 6, N.E. 

En, Ct. of (baron), 8, S. E. 
Eupatoria, 50, N.E. 
Eupen, 41, S.E. 
Eure, 7, N.E. 
Europe, 51, N.W., N.E. 
10 Euryalus (ship), 43, N.E. 
Evesham, 11, N.E. 
Evreux, 14, N.W. 
Exeter, 18, S.W. 
Exmes, 7, S.E. 
Exmouth, 18, S.W. 
Eynesham, 19, S.E. 

Faddiley, 3, N.W. 
FairHd., 22, N.E. 
Falaba, 47, S.W. 
Falaise, 10, N.W. 
Falciu, 50, N.W. 
Falemere, 5, S.W. 
Falkirk, 33, N.E. 
Falkland Is., 52, S.W. 
Falmouth, 43, N.W. 
Famars, 41, S.W. 
Fanning I., 52, S.W. 
Farackabad, 36, N.W. 
Farcienne, 46, S.E. 
Farndon, 3, S.E. 
Farquharsons (Clan), 12, N.E. 
Farringdon, 24, S.E. 
Fashoda, 48, S.W. 
Fatouville, 7, N.E. 
Fauconberg (baron), 8, N.E. 
Faughard, 16, N.E. 
Faversham, 19, S.E. 
Fayt lez Seneffe, 46, S.W. 
Fayetteville, 39, S.W. 
Fecamp, 14, N.W. 
Feings (Valdieu), 7, S.E. 
Felixstowe, 2, S.E. 
Fellata, 47, S.E. 
Feodosia (Kaffa), 50, N.E. 
Fercal, 16, N.E.' 
Fergusons (clan), 12, N.E. 
Feringes, 5, S.W. 
Ferle, 5, S.E. 
Ferrers, Hy. de (baron), 8, 


Ferrol, 43, S.W. 
Ferrybridge, 18, N.E. 
Ferte Fresnel, 7, S.E. 
Fethanleah (Faddiley), 3,N. W. 
Feurs, 13. S.E. 
Fez, 47, N.W. 
Fife, 12, S.E. 
Figueras, 45, N.E. 
Fiji Is., 52, S.E. 
Findlater Cas., 12, N.E. 
Findune, 5, S.W. 
Finisterre, C., 40, S.W. 
FinlarigCas., 12, N.W. 
Fins, 46, N.W. 
Firozpur, 36, N.W. 
Firozshah, 36, N.W. 
Firth of Forth, 3, N.W. 
Fitzalan (baron), 8, S.W. 
Fitzmaurice, 16, S.W. 
Flanders, Comte of, 6, N.E. 
Flescinges, 5, N.E. 
Fletching, 11, S.E. 
Fleurus, 46, S.E. 
Flex, 21, S.W. 
Flexley, 19, S.W. 
Flodden, 20, N.W. 
Florida, 44, S.W. 
Flushing, 43, N.E. 
Fochinges, 5, S.W. 
Fochintone, 5, S.E. 
Foix, 6, S.E. 
Foix, C. of, 13, S.E. 
Foksani, 50, N.W. 
Folkestone, 3, S E. 
Folk, North, 3, N.E. 
Folk, South, 3, S.E. 
Fontainebleau, 21, S.E. 
Fontaine 1'Eveque, 46, S.W. 
Fontenoy, 33, N.W. 

Ford, 19, S.W. 
Forez, C. of, 13, S.E. 
5 Formidable (ship), 43, N.E. 
Formigny, 15, N.W. 
Fort 96. 39, S.W. 
Forth, Firth of, 12, S.W. 
Forth, R., 12, S.W. 
Fosse (road), 2, S.E. 
Fotheringay Castle, 21, N.W. 
Fotheringay, 11, N.E. 
Foucarmont, 7, N.E. 
Fougeres, 15, N.W. 
14 Fougneux (ship), 43, N.E. 
Fountains, 19, N.E. 
Fourmigny, see Formigny. 
FowlisCas., 12, N.W. 
Framelle, 5, N.E. 
Framlingham, 11, N.E. 
France, 23, N.E. 
Francwelle, 5, S.E. 
.Frankfort, 30, N.E. 
17 Franklin (ship), 43 
Frasnes lez-Gosselies, 46, N.E. 
Frazers (clan), 12, N.W. 
Freetown, 47, S.W. 
Freiburg, 30, S.E. 
French territory (Africa), 48, 

Frenchtown, 44, N.W. 
Frevent, 15, N.E. 
Fresnes, 41, S.W. 
Friedberg, 30, N.E. 
Frobisher'sB., 23, N.W. 
Fromont, 46, N.E. 
Fronsac, 13, S.W. 
Frontenay, 9, S.W. 
Ft. Augustus (Scot.), 33, N.E. 
Ft. Beausejour, 34, S.W. 
Ft. Chambly, 39, N.E. 
Ft. Cumberland, 34, S. W. 
Ft. Duquesne, 34, S.W. 
Ft. Edward, 34, S.W. 
Ft. Erie, 44, S.E. 
Ft. Frontenac, 34, S.W. 
Ft. GaspeYeau, 34, S.W. 
Ft, Genuese, 50, S.E. 
Ft, George, 44, S.E. 
Ft. George (Scot.), 33, N.E. 
Ft. Maiden, 44, N.W. 
Ft, Meigs, 44, N.W. 
Ft. Niagara, 44, S.E. 
Ft. Ontario, 44, N.E. 
Ft. Oswego, 34, S.W. 
Ft. Stanwix, 39, N.W. 
Ft. St. David, 35, N.E. 
Ft. St. Johns, 39, N.E. 
Ft. Washington, 39, N.E. 
Ft. Western, 39, N.E. 
Ft. W. Henry, 34, S.W. 
Ft. William (Scot.), 33, N.E. 
Fuentesauco, 45, N.W. 
Fuentes d'Onoro, 45, N.W. 
Fulda, 34, S.W. 
FuldaR., 34, S.W. 
Fulford, a mile south of York 

(4,N.E. ), on the Ouse River. 
9 Furet (ship), 43, N.E. 
Furnes, 28, N.E. 
Furness, 19, N.W. 


Gabarret, 13, S.W. 
Gabbard, 27, N.E. 

Gabrantovices, 1, N.W. 
Gace', 7, S.E. 
Gaesci, 50, N.W. 
Gaillefontaine, 7, N.E. 
Gaillon, 7, N.E. 
Gainsborough, 3, N.E. 
Galatz, 50, N.W. 
Galbraiths (clan), 12, S.W. 
Galla, 48, S.E. 
Galloway, 4, N.W. 
Galpurta, 36, S.W. 
Galtee Mts., 20, S.E. 
Galway, 29, S.W. 
Galway Bay, 29, S.W. 
Gambaga, 47, S.W. 
Gambia, 47, S.W. 
Gambia, R., 47, S.W. 
Gand, G. de (baron), 8; N.E. 
Gandamak, 37, N.W. 
Gando, 47, S.E. 
Ganges, R., 36, S.E. 
GanzevilleR., 7, N.E. 
Garacotta, 37, S.E. 
Garda, L. di, 30, S.E. 
Garendon, 19, S.E. 
Gariannonum, 2, S.E. 
Garinges, 5, S.W. 
Garonne, R., 14, S.W. 
Garspur, 36, S.W. 
Garth Cas., 12, N.W. 
Gascony, 14, S.W. 
Gaverelle, 41, S.W. 
Gavray, 7, S.W. 
Gawilgarh, 36, S.W. 
Geertruidenbg, 41, N.E. 
Gembloux, 28, N.E. 
Genappe, 46, N.E. 
6 Gtntreux (ship), 43 
Gensac, 15, S.W. 
Gentinne, 46, N.E. 
Genval, 46, N.E. 
George L., 39, N.E. 
Georgetown, 52, S.W. 
Georgia, 39, S.W. 
Gerberoy, five miles north-east 

of Gournay, which see 15, 


Germans, West, 1, N.E. 
Germantown, 39, N.W. 
Gerona, 45, N.E. 
Gerpinne, 46, S.E. 
Gessoriacum, 2, S.E. 
Gevaudan, C. of, 6, S.E. 
Ghagar R., 38, N.W. 
Ghats, Eastern, 38, S.W. 
Ghats, Western, 38, S.W. 
Ghazni, 37, N.W. 
Ghenichensk, 50, N.E. 
Ghent, 6, N.E. 
Giant's Causeway, 22, N.E. 
Gibraltar, 51, N.W. 
Gien, 6, N.E. 
Giessen, 34, S.W. 
Giffard (baron), 8, S.E. 
Gilbert!., 52, S.E. 
Gillean or Macleans (clan), 12, 


Gilly, 46, S.E. 
Gimoes, 13, S.E. 
Gironde, R., 14, S.W. 
Girone, 6, S.E. 
Gisors, 7, N.E. 
Giurgevo, 50, N.W. 
Givet, 46, N. W. 
Glandboy, 16, N.E. 


Glasgow, 20, N.W. 
Glastonbury, 3, S.W. 
Gleawanceaster (Gloucester), 

3, S.W. 

Glencarry (clan), 12, N.W. 
Glencoe (see text to map No. 


Glenmalure, 20, S.E. 
GlenShiel, 33, N.E. 
Glevum (Colonia), 2, S.W 
Gloucester, 18, S.W. 
Olyn, Kn. o/(clan), 16, S.W. 
Goa (Portuguese), 38, S.W. 
Goalpara, 36, N.E. 
Gobannium, 2, S.W. 
Gobwin, 48, S.E. 
Godavery, B., 38, S.W. 
Goderville, 14, N. W. 
Godmanchester, 3, S.E. 
Godmundingham, 4, N.E. 
Godthaab, 23, N.W. 
Gogra, R., 38, N.E. 
Gohaine, 36, N.W. 
Golconda, 36, S.W. 
Gold Coast Colony, 52, S.W. 
Goliath (ship), 43 
Gombe, 47, S.E. 
Gondar, 48, N.E. 
Goojerat, 36, N.W. 
Gorde, 5, S.E. 
Gorinchem, 41, N.E. 
Gorleston, 19, S.E. 
Gorukpur, 37, N.E. 
Gortch, 50, N.W. 
Gosselies, 46, S.E. 
Gourdon, 13, S.E. 
Gournay, 15, N.E. 
Gowhaty, 36, N.E 
Gowrie, Earl of, 12, N.W. 
Graaff Reinet, 49, S.W. 
Grace Dieu, 19, S.W. 
Grafton, 11, N.E. 
Grahams, 12, S.W. 
Grampian Mts. , 33, N. E. 
Granada, 45, S.W. 
Grand Island, 44, S.E. 
Grand Leez, 46, N.E. 
Grand Menil, 46, N.E. 
Grandmesnil, 7, S.E. 
Grandpre, 6, N.E. 
Grandreng, 42, S. W. 
Grant Cas., 12, N.W. 
Grantham, 18, N.E. 
Grants (clan), 12, N.W. 
Granville, 28, S.W. 
Grave, 42, N.E. 
Gravelines, 21, N.E. 
Graville, 7, N.E. 
Gr. Bassam, 47, S.W. 
Gr. Belt, 43, N.E. 
Greater Antilles, 34, S.W. 
Gr. Geethe R., 30, N.W. 
Great Namaqua Land, 49, 


Great Oasis, 48, N.W. 
Greenalgh Cas., 24, N.W. 
Greenland, 23, N.W. 
Greenock, 20, N.W. 
Grenada, 44, N.W. 
Greslin, 7, N.E. 
Greta Bridge, 2, N.W. 
Grezes, 13, S.E. 
Grimsby, 19, N.E. 
Grisnez, Cape, 27, S.E. 
Gr. Karroo, 49, S.W. 

<!r. Makarikari Salt Basin, 

49, S.W., S.E. 
Grosmer R., 7, N.E. 
Grosmont, 11, N.W. 
Grosse, The, 22, S.W. 
Griinberg, 34, S.W. 
Guadalquivir R., 45, S.\V. 
Guadeloupe, 44, N.W. 
GuadianaR., 31, S.W. 
(iiiiirdafui, C., 48, S.E. 
Guarda F. d'Onoro, 45, N.W. 
Guari, 47, S.E. 
Gudret, 13, S.E. 
Guernsey I., 14, N.W. 
12 Querrier (ship), 43 
Guiana, 52, S.W. 
Guildford, 3, S.E. 
Guilford Courthouse, 39, S.W. 
5 Guillaume Tell (ship), 43 
Guimaraens, 45, N.W. 
Guinea, French, 47, S. W. 
Guinea, Portuguese, 47, S.W. 
Guinegate, 21, N.E. 
Guines, 13, N.W. 
Guise, 6, N.E. 
Guisnes, see Guines. 
Gujerat, 38, N.W. 
Gundermak, 36, N.W. 
Gundwana, 38, N.E., S.E. 
Gurdaspur, 37, N.E. 
Gurrah Mundlah, 38, N.W. 
Guthrum, kingdom of, 4, S.E. 
Guyenne, Duchy of, 6, S.W., 


Gwalior, 36, S.W. 
Gwent, 4, S.W. 
Gwynedd, 4, N.W. 
Gyrwas, North, 3, S.E. 
Gyrwas, South, 3, S.E. 


Haarlem, 42, N.W. 
Habitancium, 2, N.W T . 
Habranel, 42, S.E. 
Haddington, 20, N.W. 
Hadrian, Wall of, 3, N.W. 
Hague, The, 41, N.W. 
Haine, R. 46, S.W. 
Haine, St. Pierre, 46, S.W. 
Haiti, 34, S.E. 
Hakensack, 39, N.E. 
Hal, 30, S.W. 
Halberstadt, 34, N.W. 
HalidonHill, 12, S.E. 
Halifax, 39, S.W. 
Hallforest Cas. 12, N.E. 
Ham, 15, N.E. 
Hamburg, 34, N.W. 
Hambye, 7, S.W. 
Hame, 5, S.E. 
Haineleshanii, 5, S.E. 
Hamfeld, 5, S.W. 
Hamilton, 33, N. E. 
Hamilton, Cas., 12, S.W. 
Hamilton, Marquisof, 12, S.W. 
Hampton, 3, S.E. 
Ham-sur-Heure, 45, S.W. 
Hanau, 33, S.K. 
Hangetone, 5, S.W. 
Haningedune, 5, S.W. 
Hannut, 41, S.K. 
Hanover, 34, N.W. 
Harcourt, 9, N.E. 

Harderwijk, 42, N.E. 
Hard Knot, 2, N.W. 
Harfleur, 15, N.W. 
Harlech, 18, N.W. 
Haro, 14, S.W. 
Harrismith, 49, S. K. 
Hartlepool, 3, N.E. 
HarzMts., 34, N.W. 
Hasselt, 33, N.W. 
Hastenbeck, 34, N.W. 
Hastings, 3, S.E. 
Hatfield, 3, N.E. 
Hausa, 47, S.E. 
Havana, 34, S.W. 
Havel, R., 34, N W. 
Haverfordwest, 19, S.W. 
Havre, 46, S.W. 
Ha warden, 11, N.W. 
Hawick, 12, S.E. 
Hayles, 19, S.E. 
Hayti, 44, N.W. 
Heathfield, (Hatfield) 4, N.E. 
Hectone, 5. S.E. 
Hedgeley Moor, 18, N.E. 
Heilbronn, 30, N.E. 
Heiligerlee, 21, N.E. 
Helder, 43, N.E. 
Hene, 5, S.W. 
Henecham, 5, S.E. 
Hengestesdun, 3, S.W. 
Hennebon, 14, N.W. 
Henry, Cape, 39, S.W. 
Henzada, 36, S.E. 
Heppignies, 46, S.E. 
Herbertinges, 5, S.E. 
Hereford, 3, S.W. 
Herlintone, 5, S.E. 
22 Hermione, (ship), 43, N.E. 
Hermitage Cas., 12, S.E. 
2 Heros, (ship), 43, N.E. 
Herst, 5, S.W. 
Herste, 5, S.E. 
Hertevel, 5, N.E. 
Hertford, 4, S.E. 
'S Hertogenbosch, 41, N.E. 
Hesdin, 14, N.E. 
Heureux (ship), 43, S.E. 
Hevenfeld (St. Oswalds), 3, 


Hex ham, 4, N.W. 
Hiberni, 1, S.W. 
Hierne, 1, N.W. 
High St. 2, N.W 
Hildesheim, 34, N.W. 
Hillsboro, 39, S.W. 
Himalaya Mts. 36, N.W. 


Hinton, 19, S.W 
Hirsova, 50, N.W. 
Hitchin, 19, S.E. 
Hobkirks Hill, 39, S.W. 
Hochkirch, 34, N.E. 
Holkar, Dom. of 38, N.W. 
Holland, 28, N.E. 
Holland, The, 3, S.E. 
Holm Cultram, 19, N.W. 
HolmbyHo.,24, S.E. 
Holne, 19, N.E. 
Holt, 11, N.W. 
Holy I(sland), 3, N. K. 
Holy Roman Empire, 23, N.E. 
Holy well, 20, S.W. 
Homildon Hill, south of and 

close to Flodden, 20, N.W. 
Hondschoote, 41, S.W. 

Honfleur, 15, N.W. 
Hong- Kong, 52, N.E. 
Hoogly, R. 38, N. K. 
Hopetown, 41, S.\V. 
Horselei, 5, S.E. 
Horstede, 5, N.E. 
10 Hortcnse (ship) 43, N.E. 
Hoshungabad, 36, S. W. 
Hostalrich, 45, N. E. 
Hottomont, 46, N.E. 
Hougoumont, 46, N.W. 
Hougue ; Cape de la, 28, S.W. 
Houtain le Val, 46, N.W. 
Hovingedene, 5, S.W. 
Hubertusburg, 34, N.W. 
Hudson's Bay, 23, N.W. 
Hudson, R., 44, N.E. 
Huesca, 45, N.E. 
Huisne, R., 7, S.E. 
Hull, 20, S.W. 
Hulton, 19, N.W. 
Humber, R. 3, N.E. 
Humberston, 19, N.E. 
Huntingdon, 3, S.E. 
Huntley, Earl of , 12, N.E. 
HuntlyCas. 12, N.E. 
Huttah, 36, S.W. 
Huy, 41, S.E. 
Hyde, 19, S.E. 
Hyderabad, 36, S.W. 
Hythe, 11, S.E. 

Ibo, 47, S.E. 

Iceni, 2, S.E. 

Idda, 47, S.E. 

Idso, 47, S.E. 

Kelt, 5, N.\V. 

Ihamsi, 37, N.E. 

Ihelum R., 38, N.W. 

Iknield way, 2, S.W. 

Ilchester, 19, S.W. 

Ilkley, 2, N.W. 

Ilo, 47, S.E. 

Imokilly, 20, S.E. 

Inagua, 34, S.E. 

Indergurh, 37, N.E. 

India, 52, N.E. 

Indian Ocean, 52, S. E. 

13 ludomptable (ship), 43, N.E. 

Indore, 38, N.W. 

Indus, R.,30, N.W. 

Ingolstadt, 30, N.E. 

Inkermann, 50, S.E. 

Inn. R., 30, S.E. 

Innsbruck, 30, S.E. 

6 Intripide (ship), 43, N. K. 

Inveraray, 33, N.E. 

Inverey Cas., 12, N.W. 

Invergarry Cas., 12, N.\Y. 

Inverlochy Cas., 12, N.W. 

Inverness, 33, N.E. 

Inverqueich Cas., 12, N.E. 

Ipswich, 19, S.E. 

Irawadi R., 38, N.E. -S.E. 

Irchester, 2, S. E. 

Ireland, 40, N.W. 

Irish Sea, 18, N.W. 

Irmin Str., see Ermine. 

Irvine, 12, S. \V. 

Isaktchi, 50, N.W. 

Isca Dumnoniorum, 2, S. W 

Isca Silurum, 2, S.W. 


Isigny, 7, N.W. 

Isla, The, 45, S.W. 

Islip, Br, 24, S.E. 

Ismail, 50, N.W. 

Issoudun, 6, N.E. 

Isurium (now Aldborough), 2, 


Italy, 43, S.E. 
Ithanceaster, 3, S. E. 
Iton R., 7, S.E. 
Ituna Aest. 2, N.W. 
Ivernia, 2, N.W. 
Iviza, 40, S.E. 
Ivory Coast, 47, S.W. 
Ivry, 21, N.E. 

Jaca, 45, N.E. 
JailaMts., 50, S.E. 
Jalallabad, 37, N.W. 
Jaloun, 37, N.E. 
Jamaica, 52, N.W. 
James, R., 39, S.W. 
Janville, 15, N.E. 
Jaraicejo, 45, S.W. 
Jargeau, 15, N.E. 
Jarnac, 21, S.W. 
Jarrow, 3, N.E. 
Jassi, 50, N.W. 
Jawud, 36, S.W. 
Jemmegen, 21, N.E. 
Jersey I., 14, N.W. 
Jerusalem, 48, N.E. 
Jervaulx, 19. N.E. 
Jeypur, 38, S.E. 
Johannesburg, 49, S.E. 
Johnstone I, 52, N.W. 
Joigny, 6, N.E. 
Joinville, 6, N.E. 
Jones Sd., 23, N.W. 
Josselin, 6, N.W. 
Jourdan, 41, S.W. 
Juaye Mondaye, 7, N.W. 
Juba, R., 49, N.E. 
Judith, Countess, 8, S.E. 
Juduluk, 36, N.W. 
Juliers, 41, S.E. 
Jumet, 46, S.E. 
Jumiege, 7, N.E. 
Jumna, R., 38, N.W. 
8 Justice (ship), 43 
Jutes, 1, S.W. 


Kabul, 37, N.W. 
Kalahari Desert, 49, S.W. 
Kalingar, 36, S.W. 
Kalpi, 37, N.E. 
Kamaran, 48, N.E. 
Kamerun (German terr. ), 47, 


Kandahar, 36, N.W. 
Kandy, 38, S.E. 
Kano, 47, S.E. 
Kanod, 36, S.W. 
Kanuri, 47, S.E. 
Karabelnaya, 50, S.E. 
Karachi, 36, S.W. 
Karamoyo, 48, S.E. 
Karasubasar, 50, S.E. 
Karnal, 37, N.E. 
Karonga. 49, N.E. 

Karur, R,, 35, N.E. 
Kassai, R., 49, N.W. 

Kassala, 48, N.E. 
Katar I., 52, N.E. 
Kataria, 37, S.W. 
Katsina, 47, S.E. 
Kavanaghs, 20, S.E. 
Kazembe, 49, N.E. 
Kazvin, 23, S E. 
Keeling Is. (Cocos Is.), 52, S.E. 
Kelati Ghilzi, 36, N.W. 
Kells, 16, N.E. 
Kelso, 33, N.E. 
Ken, R., 37, N.E. 
Kendal (West), 33, S.E. 
Kenebec, R., 39, N.E. 
Kenilworth, 11, N.E. 
Kemnare, 16, S.W. 
Kenmare, R., 22, S.W. 
Kenmure Cas., 12, S.W. 
Kentish Knock. 27, S E. 
Kermadec Is., 52, S.E. 
Kerpen, 42, S.E. 
Kerry, 40, N.W. 
Kertch, 50, N.E. 
Kesteven, 4, N.E. 
Kevry Kn. of, (clan), 16, S.W. 
Kezdi Vasarhely, 50, N.W. 
Khandesh, 38, N.W., S.W. 
Khartum, 48, N W. 
Khatmandu, 36, N.E. 
Kherson, 50, N.E. 
Khoraie, 37, S.E. 
Khurd, 36, N.W. 
KhyberP., 37, N.W. 
Kibwezi, 48, S.E. 
Kilchuirn Castle, 12, S.W. 
Kilcoy Cas., 12, N.W. 
Kildare, 16, S.E. 
Kildrummy Cas., 12, N.E. 
Kilia, 50, N.W. 
KilimaNjaro, 48, S.E. 
Kilkenny, 29, S.E. 
Killala Bay, 22, N.W. 
Killala, 43, N.W. 
Killaloe, 22, S W. 
Killiecrankie (see text to map 

No. 29). 

Kilmallock, 16, S.W. 
Kilm, 41, S.W. 
Kilrush, 22, S.W. 
Kilsyth, 24, N.W. 
Kimberley, 49, S.W. 
Kimbolton, 11, N.E. 
Kinburn. 50, N.E. 
Kincardine Cas., 12, N.E. 
King, The, 8, N.W. 
King George Tn., 47, S.E. 
King's Channel, 43, N.E. 
King's County, 20, S.E. 
King's Court, 22. N.E. 
King's Langley, 19, S.E. 
King's Scaur ("Settled, 3, N.W. 
Kingston, 11, S.E. 
Kingston-on-Hull, 8, N.E. 
Kingswood. 19, S.W T . 
Kinnaird Cas., 12, N.E. 
Kiiisale, 29, S.W. 
Kirin, 48, S.E. 
Kirki, 36, S.W. 
Kirkliston, 12, S.E. 
Kirkstall, 19, N.E. 
Kirksted, 19, N.E. 
Kishenev, 50, N.W. 
Kishmayu, 48, S.E. 

Kistna, R., 38, S.W. 
Kitto, 47, S.W. 
Kivu, L., 48, S.W. 
Klosterkamp, 34, N.W. 
Kloster Zeven, 34, N.W. 
Knockmealdown Mts. , 22, 


Knocknanoss, 22, S.E. 
Kobe, 48, N.W. 
Kogom, 47, S.E. 
Kolar, 35, N.E. 
Kolin, 34, N.E. 
Kong, 47, S.W. 
Kordofan, 48, N.W. 
Korigaan, 36, S.W. 
Kotah, 37, S.E. 
Kranganur, 35, S.W. 
KribiSta., 49, N.W. 
Krishna, R., 36, S.W. 
Kroonstad, 49, S.E. 
Kubango, R., 49, S.W. 
Kufra, Oasis, 48, N.W. 
Kuka, 47, S.E. 
Kumassi, 47, S.W. 
Kunersdorf, 34, N.E. 
Kunkraoli, 37, N.W. 
Kurgaon, 37, S.E. 
Kuria Is., 52, N.E. 
Kurrachee, 38, N.W. 
Kymmer, 19, S.W. 

LaBarthe, 6, S.W. 

laBassee, 30, S.W. 

la Basse Baudesset, 46, N. E. 

Labrador, 52, N.W. 

LaBraye, 14, N.E. 

Laccadive Is., 52, N.E. 

La Charite, 15, S.E. 

LachlanCas., 12, S.W. 

Lad, lib de (baron), 8, N.E. 

Lad, Roger de (baron), 8, S.W. 

laColle, 44, N.E. 

Ladenburg, 30, N.E. 

Lado, 48, S.W. 

Ladysmith, 49, S.E. 

Laeffeldt, 33, N.W. 

la Ferte Mace, 7, N.W. 

laFleche9, N.W. 

Lagan, R. 20, N.E. 

Lagos, 52, S.W. 

La Hague, C., 28, S.W. 

La Haye, 14, N.W. 

la Haye du Puits, 7, N.W. 

la Haye Painel, 7, S.W. 

la Haye Ste. 46, N.W. 

Lahn, R., 34, S.W. 

Lahore, 38, N.W. 

La Hogue, see Hougue. 

La Hougue, 14, N.W. 

la Hulpe, 46, N.E. 

Laigle, 7, S.E. 

Lallapur, 37, S.E. 

Lamballe, 9, N.W. 

Lambusart, 46, S.E. 

Lamego, 45, N.W. 

Lancaster, 8, N.W. 

Lancaster, Ed. of (baron), 8, 


Lancaster Sound, 23, N.W. 
Lanchester, 2, N.E. 
Lancinges, 5, S.W. 
Landen, 28, N.E. 
Landrecies, 4, S.W. 

Langelie, 5, S.E. 

Langenburg Sta., 49, N.E. 

Langport, 24, S.W. 

Langres, 6, N.E 

Langres, D. of, 13, N.E. 

Langside, 20, N.W. 

Lansdown, 24, S.W. 

Laon, 6, N.E. 

la Reole, 10, S.W. 

Larkhaiia, 36, N.W. 

Larne, 22, N.E. 

la Roche, 42, S.E. 

La Rochefoucauld, 14, S.W. 

La Rochelle, 14, N.W. 

10 FArttmise (ship), 43. 

Lasne, R. 46, N.E. 

Lastingham, 3, N.E. 

Lastourville, 49, N.W. 

Laswaree, 38, N.W. 

Lathom Ho, 24, S.W. 

Lander, 12, S.E. 

Lauffeld, see Laeffeldt. 

Launceston, 24, S.W. 

Lauren (Clan), 12, S.W. 

Lautrec, 13, S.E. 

Laval, 13, N.W. 

Lavatrae, 2, N.W. 

Lavaur, 13, S.E. 

Lawer Cas. 12, N.W. 

Leander, (Ship), 43. 

Lech, R., 30, S.E. 

Lee, R., 29, S.W. 

Leeds, 11, S.E. 

Leers Fosteau, 46, S.W. 

Legeceaster (Leicester), 3, S.E. 

le Hommet, 7, N.W. 

Leicester, 8, S.E. 

Leine, R., 34, N.W. 

Leinster, 30, S.E. 

Leiria, 45, N.W. 

Leith, 20, N.W. 

Leitrim, 22, N.W. 

Leix, 16, S.E. 

le Mans, 14, N.W. 

le Mazy, 46, S.E. 

Lembeque, 28, N.E 

Lennox, 12, S.W. 

Le Nouvion, 41, S.W. 

Leod Cas. 12, N.W. 

Leominster, 18, S.W. 

L<k>n (Neth.), 41, S.E. 

Leopold II, Lake, 48, S.W. 

Leopold ville, 49, N.W. 

Leo wo, 50, N.W. 

le Puy, 13, S.E. 

le Quesnoy, 41, S.W. 

Lerida, 45, N.E. 

Les Andelys, 10, N.E. 

Lescar, 13, S.W. 

Lesmore Cas., 12, N.E. 

Lessay, 7, N.W. 

Lesser Antilles, 34, S.E. 

Lessines, 30, S.W. 

Lestone, 5, S.E. 

Letocetum, 2, S.W. 

Letterkenny, 20, N.E. 

Leucarum, 2, S.W. 

Leuthen, 34, N.E. 

Leven, Loch, 20, N.W. 

4 Leviathan, (Ship), 43, N. K. 

Lewes, 5, S.E. 

Lewiston, 44, S.E. 

Lexington, 39, N.E. 

Leybourne, (baron), 8, N.W. 

Leydeii, 21, N.E. 



Leydsdorp, 49, S.E. 

Lwarde, R. 7, N. K. 

L. Geethe, R., 30, S W. 

Lialui, 49, N.W. 

Liberchies, 46, S.W. 

Liberia, 47, S.W. 

Libreville, 49, N.W. 

Libyan Desert, 47, N.E. 

Lichfield, 33, S.E. 

Liege, 41, S.E. 

Liegnitz, 34, N.E. 

Liffey, R. 16, S.E. 

Ligny, 46, S.E. 

Lille, 6, N.E. 

Lillebonne, 7, N.E. 

Limal, 46, N.E. 

Limelette, 46, N.E. 

Limerick, 29, S.W. 

Limoges, 6, S.E. 

Limoux, 13, S.E. 

Limpopo, R. 49. S.E. 

Lincoln, 3, N.E. 

Lincoln, Salisbury, E. of, 

(baron) 8, N. W. 
Lindisfarne, 3, N.E. 
Lindiswara, 3, N.E. 
Linclum (Colonia), 2, N. E. 
Linlithgow, 12, N.W. 
Lion, Gulf of the, 34, S.E. 
Lippe, R. 34, N. E. 
Lisbon, 45, S.W. 
Lisburn, 22, N.E. 
Lisieux, 6, N.W. 
Lisors Mortemer, 7, N.E. 
Lissa, 43, S.W. S.E. 
Listowel, 22, S.W. 
Litelforde, 5, S.E. 
Livadia, 50, S.E. 
Liverpool, 40, N.E. 
Lizard, 20, S.W. 
Llandaff, 4, S.W. 
Llantarnam, 19, S.W. 
Llantrisant, 11, S.W. 
Llanvais, 19, N.W. 
Llerena, 45, S.W. 
Lleyn, 4, N.W. 
Loanda, 49, N.W. 
Loango, 49, N.W. 
Loangwa, R. 49, N.E. 
Lobbes, 46, N.W. 
Lobositz, 34, N.E. 
Lochaber, 33, N.E. 
Loche, 14, N.W. 
Lochindorb Cas., 12, N.E. 
Lochleven, 20, N.W. 
Lochmaben, 20, N.W. 
Lochmaben Cas., 12, S.E. 
Loch-nan, 33, N.E. 
Lodeve, 13, S.E. 
Logh, 48, S.E. 
Logrono, 14, S.W. 
Loire, R. 14, N.E. 
Loko, 47, S.E. 
Lokoja, 47, S.E. 
Londinium, 2, S.E. 
London, 52, N.W. 
Londonderry, 29, N.E. 
Long Bay, 39, S.W. 
Long Island, 39, N.E. 
Longjumeau, 21, N.E. 
Longues, 7, N. W. 
Longueville, 6, N.E. 
Longwy, 41, S.E. 
Lonlay 1'Abbaye, 7, S.W. 
Loodiana, 36, N.W. 

Lord Howe I, 52, S.E. 
Lorient, 34, N.E. 
1, L' Orient, (ship), 43, 
Losecoat field, near Stamford, 

18, S.E. 

Losenham, 19, S.E. 
Lostwithiel, 24, S. \Y. 
Lot, R. 13, S.E. 
Lothian, 4, N.W. 
London Hill, 12, S.W. 
Loudun, 13, N.W. 
Louisbourg, 34, S.W. 
Lourdes, 13, S.W. 
Lourenco Marques, 49, S.E. 
Louth (*Eng.), 20, S.W. 
Louth Park, 19, N.E. 
Lou vain, 41, S.W. 
Louviers, 15, N.E. 
Lowestoft, 27, N.E. 
Luapula, R., 49, N.E. 
Lucknow, 37, N.E. 
Lucon, 13, S.W. 
Liideritzland, 49, S.W. 
Ludlew, 19, S.W. 
Ludlow, 18, S.W. 
Lugo, 45, N.W. 
Luguvallium, 2, N.W. 
Lundenburh (London), 3, S.E. 
Lundi,R. 49, S.E. 
Lundy, I., 4, S.W. 
Lundy's Lane, 44, S.E. 
Luneburg, 34, N.W. 
Luni, R. 57, N.W. 
Lusignan, 15, S.W. 
Lussac, 14, N.W. 
Lutternberg, 34, N.W. 
Lydney, 2, S.W. 
Lyme Regis, 24, S.W. 
Lymne, 3, S.E. 
Lynn, 18, S.E. 
Lyons, 10, N.E. 
Lys, R. 42, S.W. 


Maas, R., 21, N.E. 
Maastricht, 41, S.E. 
Maazeh, 48, N.W. 
Mac Artane, 20, N.E. 
Macaulays (clan), 12, S.W. 
Mac Carthies, 20, S. E. 
Macclesfield, 33, S.E. 
Mac Dermot (clan), 28, N.E. 
Macdonalds (clan), 12, N.W. 
Macdonalds of Keppoch (clan), 

12, N.W. 

Maceira, B. of, 45, S. W. 
Margregors (clan), 12, N.W. 
Machewa, 49, N.E. 
Machynlleth, 18, S.W. 
Macian or Macdonalds (clan), 

12, N.W. 
Macin, 50, N.W. 
Mackenzies (clan), 12, N.W. 
MacKinnons (clan), 12, N.W. 
Mackintoshes (clan), 12, N.W. 
Madeods (clan), 12, N.W. 
Macmahon, 20, N.E. 
Macnibs (clan), 12, S.W. 
Macnaughtan (clan), 12, N.W. 
Macon, 6, S.E. 

Macphersons (clan), 12, N.W. 
MacwUliam Wachter (clan), 

16, S.W. 

Madras, 35, N.E. 

Madrid, 31, N.W. 

Maeatae, 2, N.W. 

Maeldun, 3, S.E. 

Maf eking, 49, S.E. 

Mafia I., 48, S.E. 

Magadoxo (Mokdishu), 48, 


Magennis, 20, N.E. 
Magnae, 2, S.W. 
Maguire, 20, N.E. 
Mahanuddy, R. , 38, N. E S. E. 
Mahe, 38, S.W. 
Mahedpur, 36, S.W. 
Maheidpur, 37, S.E. 
Mahi, R., 37. S.W. 
Mahon, 40, S.E. 
Maidan, 36, N.W. 
Maidstone, 25, S.E. 
Maidulfsburh, 3, S.W. 
Maillezais, 13, S.W. 
Main, R., 30, N.E. 
Maine, 39, N.E. 
Maiwand, 37, N.W. 
Majestic (ship), 43. 
Majorca, 40, S.E. 
Makencie, 50, S.E. 
Makololo, 49, S.E. 
Makwanpur, 36, N.E. 
Malabar Coast, 38, S.W. 
Malacca, 51, S.E. 
Malaga, 40, S.E. 
Malakow, 50, S.E.. 
Malawn, 36, N.W. 
Malay, Prot., 52, S.E. 
Maiden I. 52, S.W. 
Maldivels. 52, S.E. 
Maldon, 4, S.E. 
Malestrait, 14, N.W. 
Malet Rob (baron), 8, S.E. 
Malicorne, 14, N.W. 
Malines, 41, S.W. 
Malmedy, 41, S.E. 
Malmesbury, 4, S.W. 
Malplaquet, 30, S.W. 
Malta, 47, N.E. 
Malthon, 37, S.E. 
Malton, 8, N.E. 
Malvalli, 35, N.W. 
Malwa, 36, S.W. 
Malwah,38, N.W. 
Man, I. of, 4, N.W. 
Manahikils. 52, S.W. 
Manar, Gulf of, 35, S.E. 
Manchester, 3, N.W. 
Mancunium, 2, N.W. 
Mandeville, G. de (baron), 8, 


Manduessednni, 2, S.W. 
Manga, 47, S.E. 
Mangdoo, 36, S.E. 
Mangui, 6, S.E. 
Mangwato, 49, S.E. 
Manipur, 36, S.E. 
Mannheim, 30, N.E. 
Mantes, 6, N.E. 
Mar, 12, N.E. 
Maranda, 49, N.E. 
Marbais, 46, N.E. 
Marburg, 34, S.W. 
Marche, Comtd of the, 13, S.E. 
Marchiennes, 41, S.W. 
Marcilly s. Eure, 7, S.E. 
Marcinelle, 46, S.E. 
Margan, 19, S.W. 

Marghi, 47, S.E. 

Mandunum, 2, S.W. 

Market Weighton, 3, N.I-:. 

Marlborough, 19, S.K. 

Marne, R., 30, S.W. 

31 Mar* (ship) 43, N.E. 

Marston Moor, 24, N. E. 

Martafal, 48, N.W. 

Martatan, 36,S. E. 

Martinique, 44, N.W. 

Marwar, 38, N.W. 

Maryborough, 16, S.E. 

Maryland, 39, S.W. 

Maryport, 3, N.W. 

Masai, 48, S.E. 

Maserfeld (Old Oswestry), 3, 

Mashona, 49, S.E. 

Mask, L., 22, N.W. 

Massachusetts, 39, N.E. 

Massowah, 48, N.E. 

Masulipatam, 38, S.E. 

Matabele Land, 49, S.E. 

Matha, 9, S.W. 

Mathraval, 4, N.W. 

Maubeuge, 41, S.W. 

Maugnio, 13, S.E. 

Mauleon, 9, N.W. 

Maupertuis, 13, S.W. 

Mauritius, 52, S.E. 

Maxen, 34, N.E. 

Mayence, 30, N.E. 

Mayenne. 6, N.W. 

Mayenne R , 7, S.W. 

Maynooth, 20, S.E. 

McBrien (clan), 16, S.W. 

Me Dougals (clan), 12, S.W. 

Me Geoghegan (clan), 16, N.E. 

Me Oennis (clan), 16, N.E. 

Me Oilapatrick (clan), 16, S.E. 

McMurrough (clan), 16, S.E. 

Me Robin (clan), 16, N.E. 

Me Thomas (clan), 12, N.E. 

Meaday, 36, S.E. 

Mearns, 12, N.E. 

Meath, 16, N.E. 

Meaux, 46, N.W. 

Mecca, 48, N.E. 

Medehei, 5, S.E. 

Medellin, 45, S.W. 

Medeshampstead (Peterbor- 
ough), 3, S.E. 

Medina, 48, N.E. 

Medina Sidonia, 45, S.W. 

Mediterranean Sea, 45, S. E. 

Medjidie, 50, N.W. 

Medmenham, 19, S.E. 

Medoc, 15, S.W. 

Meerdorp, 30, S.W. 

Meerut, 37, N.E. 

Megasaetas, (tribe), 3, S.W. 

Mehaigne, R., 28, N.E. 

Melandra, 2, N.W. 

Melas, 42, S.E. 

Melbourne, 52, S.E. 

Melcombe, 19, S.W. 

Melgund Cas , 12, N.E. 

Mellery, 46, N.E. 

Mellinges, 5, S.E. 

Melloon, 36, S.E. 

Melrose, a few miles north-east 
of Selkirk (25, N.W.), in 

Melun, 6, N.E. 

Menapii, 1,N.W. 



Mende, 13, S.E. 
Mengo, 48, S.W. 
Menin, 28, N.E. 
Menjibar, 45, S.W. 
Menteith, 12, S.W. 
Menzies, (clan), 12, N.W. 
Meppel, 42, N.E. 
Merbes, 42, S.W. 
Merbes le Chateau, 46, S.W. 
Mercia, Danish, 4, S.W. 
Mercia, English, 4, S.W. 
Mercians, (or W. Engle), 3, 


4 Mercure, (ship), 43 
Merderet, R., 7, N.W. 
Merevale, 19, S.E. 
Merida, 45, S.W. 
Merton, 4, S.E. 
Mervent, 10, S.W. 
Mesewelle, 5, N.E. 
Metaris, Aest, 2, S.E. 
Metz, 30, S.W. 
Meulan, 6, N.E. 
Meidan, Ct. of (baron), 8, S.E. 
Meung, 15, N.E. 
Meuse, R, 46, S.E. 
Mexico, Gulf of, 44, S.W. 
Miani, 36, S.W. 
Michigan, L, 44, N.W 
Middelburg, 49, S.E. 
Middle Ground, (shoal), 43, 


Middleham, 18, N.E. 
Milford Haven, 18, S.W. 
Milhau, 13, S.E. 
Millau, see Milhau. 
Milton, 19, S.W. 
Minden, 34, N.W. 
Minho, R, 45, N.W. 
Minorca, 40, S.E. 
8 Minotaur, (ship), 43, N.E. 
Mirabete, 45, S.W. 
Miraj, 36, S.W. 
Miranda, 45, N W. 
Miranda, 45, N.E 
Mirebeau, 10, S W. 
Mirepoix, 6, S.E. 
Mirpur, 36, S.W. 
Mississippi, R , 44, S.W. 
Mitchelstown, 22, S W. 
Mizen, Hd., 22, S.W. 
Mozambique, 49. N.E. 
Motfat, 33, N.E.' 
Moham, 5, S.W. 
Mokdishu, (Magadoxo), 48, 


Molstan, 5, S.W. 
Mombasa, 48, S.E. 
Mona, L, 2, N.W. 
Monapia, 1, 2, N.W. 
g. Monarca (ship), 43 
Moncontour, 21, S.W. 
Mondego, R., 45, N.W. 
Mondelheim, 30, N.E. 
Monghyr, 36, S.E. 
Moumouth, 11, N.W. 
Monmouth Courthouse, 39, 


Monongahela, R., 34, S.W. 
Monrovia, 47, S.W. 
Mons, 46, S.W. 
Mont, 13, S.W. 
Montacute, 8, S.W. 
Montanel, 7, S.W. 
e. Montanez (ship), 43 

Montauban, 21, S.E. 
3 Mont Blanc (ship), 43, N.E. 
Montbrisson, 13, S.E. 
Montdidier, 15, N.E. 
Montebourg, 7, N.W T . 
Montereau, 15, N.E. 
Montfort, 6, N.E. 
Montfort, Hugh de (baron), 8, 


Montfort, s. Rille, 7, N.E. 
Montgomery, 11, N.W. 
Montgomery, Rog. de (baron), 

8, S.E. " 

Montigny le Tilleuil, 46, S.W. 
Montivilliers, 7, N.E. 
Montlour, 13, S.E. 
Montpellier, 52, N.W. 
Montpensier, 13, S.E. 
Montpingon, 7, S.E. 
Montreal, 34, S.W. 
Montreuil, 14, N.E. 
Montrose, 33, N.E. 
Mont St. Guibert, 46, N.E. 
Mont St. Jean, 46, N.W. 
Mont St. Michel, 7, S.W. 
Montvilliers, 24, N. W T . 
Mookerheide, 21, N.E. 
Mooltan, 36, N.W. 
Moor, 11, S.E. 
Moorshedabad, 35, S.W. 
Moransart, 46, N.E. 
Morar, 37, N.E. 
Moray, 12, N.W. 
Morecambe B., 33, S.E. 
Moresby, 2, N.W. 
Morganwg, 4, S.W. 
Moricambe Aest. 2, N.W. 
Morlanwelz, 46, S.W. 
Morleia, 5, N.W. 
Moro Castle, 34, S.W. 
Morocco, 47, N.W. 
Mortagne, 10, N.E. 
Mortain, 6, N.W. 

Morlain Ct. of (baron), 8, 

Mortemer, 7, N.E. 

Mortimer (baron), 8, S.W. 

Mortimer, Rob. de (baron), 8 

Mortimer's X., 18, S.W. 

Mossamedes, 49, N.W. 

Moselle, R., 46, S.E. 

MosselBay, 49, S.W. 

Moulineaux, 7, N.E. 

Moulins, 13, S.E. 

Moulins la Marche, 7, S.E. 

Mount Grace, 19, N.E. 

Moustier, 46, S.E. 

Mousty, 46, N.E. 

Moutiers au Perche, 7, S.E. 

Moivbray (baron), 8, N.E. 

MoyCas., 12, N.W 

Mpala, 48, S.W. 

Muchelney, 19, S.W. 

Mudki, 36, N.W. 

Mullingar, 29, N.E. 

Miinden, 34, N.W. 

Munich, 30, N.E. 

Munroes (clan), 12, N.W 

Munster, 16, S.W. 

Minister, 34, N.W. 

Murials., 52, N.E. 

Murray, Earl of, 12, N.W. 

Murray Firth, 33, N.E. 

Murray s (clan). 12, N.W. 

Murrays or Sutherland. 1 ) (clan), 

12, N.W. 

Murus Hadriani, 2, N.W. 
Murviedro, 45, S.E. 
Muscovy, 23, N.E. 
Muskerry, 20, S.E. 
Mutine (ship), 43 
Muttra, 36, N.W. 
Mweru, L.,49, N.E 
Mysore, 35, N.W. -N.E. 


Naas, 16, S.E. 
Nagaisk, 50, N.E. 
Nagpur, 38, S.W. 
13 Naiad (ship), 43, N.E. 
Nairn, 33, N.E. 
Najara, see Navarete. 
Nalapani, 36, N.W. 
Nalkerry, 37, S.E. 
Namur, 46, S.E. 
Nandere, 38, S.W. 
Nantes, 6, N.W. 
Nanteuil, 46, N.W. 
Nantwich, 24, N.W. 
Naples, 43, S.E. 
Narbada, R., 36, S.W. 
Narbonne, 6, S.E. 
Narnaul 37, N.E. 
Narra, R., 38, N.W. 
Naseby, 24, S.E. 
Nasik, 36, S.W. 
Nasirabad, 37, N.E. 
Natal, 49, S.E. 
Nauf, R., 36, S.E. 
Nava del Rey, 45, N.W. 
Navalcarnero, 45, N.W. 
Navalmoral, 45, N.W. 
Navarete, 14, S.W. 
Navarre, Kingdom of, 6, S.W. 
Neagh, Lough, 16, N.E. 
Neath, 19, S.W. 
Nechtansmere, according to 
some the modern Dunnichen, 
about four miles south-east 
of Forfar( Scotland) ; accord- 
ing to others, on the upper 
Spey River, north of Dal- 
whinnie, 33, N.W. 

Neerwinden, 28, N.E. 

Negapatam, 39, S.E. 

Negrais, L, 36, S.E. 

Nehou, 7, N.W. 

NeidpathCas., 12, S.E. 

Nemours, 21, S.E. 

Nenagh, 22, S W. 

Nepaul, 38, N.E. 

11 Neptune, (Ship), 43, N.E. 

Nerbudda, R., 38, N.W. 

Ness, Loch, 33, N.E. 

Netherby, 2, N.W. 

Netley, 19, S.E. 

Neufchateau (Neth.), 41, S.E. 

NeuveSart, 46, N.E. 

Nevers, 6, N.E. 

Nevers, C. of, 6, N.E. 

Neville (baron), 8, N.E. 

Nevill's Cross, 12, S.E. 

Newark, 19, N.E. 

Newburn, 24, N.E. 

Newbury, 24, S.E. 

Newburyport, 39, N.E. 

Newcastle, 18, N.E. 

Newcastle-under-Lyme, 18, 


Newenham, 19, S.W. 
Newfoundland, 51, N.W. 
New Hampshire, 39, N.E. 
Newmarket, 25, S.E. 
Newminster, 19, N.E. 
New Orleans, see text to map 

No. 44. 

Newport, 11, S.W. 
Newport (Neth.), 41, S.W. 
New Ross, 22, S.E. 
Newry (Ireland), 29, N.E. 
New Shoreham, 19, S.E. 
New South Wales, 51, S.E. 
Newstead, 2, N.W. 
Newton Butler, 29, N.E. 
Newtown, 18, S.W. 
New York 39, N.E. 
New Zealand, 52, S.E. 
Niagara Falls, 44, N.W. 
Niam Niam (Sande), 48, S.W 
Nianam, R. (Omo), 48, S.E. 
Nicob. Is, 52, S.E. 
Nidd, R., 26, N.W. 
Nidum, 2, S.W. 
Nieuwport, 21, N.E. 
Niger, R., 47, S.W. 
Nigeria, 47, S.E. 
Nijmegen, 41, N.E. 
Nikolayev, 50, N.E. 
Nile, battle of the, 43, S.E. 
Nile, R., 48, N.W. 
Nillaghur, 36, N.W. 
Nil St. Vincent, 46, N.E. 
Nimes, 6, S.E. 
Nimwegen, see Nijmegen. 
Nithsdale, 12, S.W. 
Nitinbreham, 5, N.W. 
Nivelle, R., 45, N.E. 
Nivelles, 41, S.W. 
Nivemere, 5, S.W 7 . 
Niworde, 5, S.E. 
Nogent, 6, N.E. 
Nonancourt, 7, S.E. 
Nootka Sound, on the west side 

of Vancouver Island, 52, 


Nordborne, 5, N.W. 
Nore, R., 29, S.E. 
Norfolk, L, 51, S.E. 
Norfolk, U.S.A., 39, S.W. 
Norham, 12, S.E. 
Normandy, Duchy of, 6, N. W., 

N.E. ' 

Normans, 1, S.W. 
North Allerdon (Northaller- 

ton), 19, N.E. 
Northampton, 11, N.E. 
North Berwick, 33, N.E. 
Northfolk, 4, S.E. 
North Foreland, 27, S.E. 
NorthPoint, 44, N.E. , 
North Sea, 43, N.W. 
Northumberland, 4, N. W. 
Northweorthic (Derby), 3, S. K. 
Norway, 23, N.E. 
Norwegians, 1, N.W. 
Norwich, 3, S.E. 
Nottingham, 8, N.E. 
Novantae, 1, S.W. 
Novantes, Vri, 1, S.W. 
Nora Scotia, 34, S.W. 
Nowgong, 36, N.E. 
Noyon, 9, N.E. 



Nubia, 48, N.W. 
Nubian Desert, 48, N.W. 
Nuer, 48, S.W. 
Nukanin, 49, S.W. 
Nyangwe, 48, S.W. 
Nyassa, L., 49, N.E. 

Obok, 48, S.E. 

O'Brien (clan), 20, S.E. 

0' Byrne (clan), 20, S.E. 

O'Cahan (clan), 20, N.E. 

Ocana, 45, N.W. 

O'Carroll (clan), 20, S.E. 

Ocelum, Pr., 2, N.E. 

Ockley, 3, S.E. 

Ocna, 50, N.W. 

O'Connor (clan), 20, N.E. 

Octapitarum, Pr., 2, S.W. 

Odemanscote, 5, S.W. 

Oder, R., 34, N.E. 

Odessa, 50, N.W. 

Odintune, 5, S.W. 

O'Dogherty (clan), 20, N.E. 

O'Donnell (clan), 20, N.E. 

O'Dwyer (clan), 20, S.E. 

Oestrymnii, 1, S.W. 

O'Farrell (clan), 20, N.E. 

Offaly, 16, S.E. 

Offa's Dyke, 3, S.W. 

Ofintune, 5, S.W. 

a Fitzgerald (clan), 16, S.W. 

O 'Flaherty (clan), 16, N.W. 

Ogilvy, Lord of Airlie, 12, N.E. 

Ohain, 46, N.E. 

O'Hanlon (clan), 20, N.E. 

Ohio, R., 39, S.W. 

Oise, R., 14, N.E. 

O Kelly (clan), 16, N.W. 

O' Kennedy (clan), 20, S.E. 

Okkim, 36, S.E. 

Old Bridge, 22, N.E. 

Old Carlisle, 2, N.W. 

Olifant, R., 49, S.E. 

Olivenca, 45, S.W. 

Olney, a few miles west of 

Bedford, on the Ouse River, 

4, S.E. 

Oloron, 13, S.W. 
Oltenitza, 50, N.W. 
Omagh, 29, N.E. 
O .M'dley (clan), 16, N.W. 
Omdurman, 48, N.W. 
O'Miugher (clan), 20, S.E. 
O'Molloy (clan), 16, N.E. 
O Moore (clan), 16, S.E. 
Omo, R. (Nianam R.), 48, S.E. 
Oneida, L., 39, N.W. 
O'Neill (clan), 20, N.E. 
Onicha, 47, S.E. 
Onoz, 46, S.E. 
Onslow, B., 39, S.W. 
Ontario, Lake, 39, N.W. 
Oodepore, 37, S.W. 
Oojain, 36, S.W. 
Oporto, 45, N.W. 
Oran, 47, N.W.! 
Orange, R., 49, S.W. 
Orange River Colony, 49, S.E. 
Orbec, 7, S.E. 
Orde, 5, N.W. 
Ordinges, 5, S.W. 
Ordovices, 1, N. \V. 

O'Reilly (clan), 20, N.E. 
Orense, 45, N.W. 
Orford, 19, S.E. 
Orinoco, R., 40, N.W. 
6 Orion (ship), 43, N.E. 
Orissa, 38, S.E. 
Orival, 7, N.E. 
Orleans, 6, N.E. 
Orleans, D. of, 13, N.E. 
Orleans!., 34, S.W. 
Orne, 7, S.E. 
Oropesa, 45, N.W. 
O'Rourke (clan), 20, N.E. 
Ortegal, C., 40, S.W. 
Orthes, 45, N.E. 
Orwell, 11, N.E, 
O'Ryan (clan), 20, S.E. 
O'Shauyhnessy (clan), 16, S.W. 
Ossory, 16, S.E. 
Ostar, 50, N.E. 
Ostend, 27, S.E. 
O'Sullimns (clan). 20, S.W. 
Oswestry, 11, N.W. 
Otchakov, 50, N.E. 
Otford, 3, S.E. 
Othonae, 2, S.E. 
O'TWe(clan), 16, S.E. 
Ottawa, 51, N.W. 
Ottenbourg, 46, N.E. 
Otterburn, close to Bremen him, 

2, N.W. 

Ottignies, 46, N.E. 
Oudenarde, 28, N.E. 
Oudh, 38, N.W. -N.E. 
Ourthe, R., 41, S.E. 
Ouse, R., 11, N.E. 
Overborough, 2, N.W. 
Oviedo, 45, N.W. 
Oxford, 3, S.E. 

Pacific Ocean, 52, N.W. -S.W. 

Pacy, 7, S.E. 

Paderborn, 34, N.W. 

Pagan, 36, S.E. 

Pain, R., 38, S.W. 

Pain-gunga, R., 36, S.W. 

Palachwe, 49, S.E. 

Palar, R., 35, N.E. 

Pale, The, 16, N.E. 

Palencia, 45, N.W. 

Palestine, 48, N.E. 

Palghat, 35, N.W. 

Palk'sStr., 35, S.E. 

Palma, 40, S.E, 

PamlicoSd., 39, S.W. 

Pamplona, 45, N.E. 

Pancorbo, 45, N.E. 

Pandapur, 36, S.W. 

Paniput, 37, N.E. 

Pappelotte, 46, N.E. 

ParbatiR., 37, S.E. 

Paris, 6, N.E. 

Parisii, 1, S.W. 

Parret, R., 3, S.W. 

Partabgarh, 37, S.W. 

Parthenay, S. of, 13, S.W. 

Passaro, Cape, the extreme 
S.E. point of Sicily where 
Byng defeated the Spanish 
fleet, 1718. 

Patanago, 36, S.E. 

Patay, 15, N.E. 

Patna, 38, N. K. 

Pau, 45, N. E. 

Paveorne, 5, S. W. 

Pavilly, 7, N.E. 

Payengaut, 38, S. W. 

Peakland, 4, N.E. 

Pecquigny, see P^quigny. 

Pecsaeten, 3, S.E. 

Peer, 33, N.W. 

Pegu, 36, S.E. 

Peishwah, Doms. of the 38, 


PeiwarP., 37, N.W. 
Pellinges, 5, S.E. 
Pembal.,48, S.E. 
Pembroke, 11, S.W. 
Penang, 51, S.E. 
Pendennis Cas., 24, S.W. 
Penevesel, 5, S.E. 
Pengwvrn (Shrewsbury), 3, 


Pennar, R., 39, S.E. 
Penner, R., 38, S.W. 
Pennsylvania, 39, N.W. 
Penrith, 33, S.E. 
Pensacola, 44, S.W. 
Penthievre, C. of, 13, N.W. 
Pe"quigny, between Abbeville 

and Amiens, on the Somine 

River, 15, N.E. 
Perche, C. of, 6, N.E. 
Percinges, 5, S.W. 
Percy, 7, S.W. 
Percy, Wm. de (baron), 8, 


Perekop, 50, N.E. 
Perigord, C. of, 13, S.W. 
Perigueux, 6, S.E. 
Periml., 52, N.E. 
Permakal, 35, N.E. 
Peronne, 46, N.W. 
Perpignan, 13, S.E. 
Pershore, 19, S.W. 
Perth, 33, N.E. 
Perthshire, 33, N.E. 
Perwez, 46, N.E. 
Peshawur, 36, N.W. 
Petchinges, 5, S.W. 
Peterborough, 18, S.E. 
Peterborough, Monks of 

(barons), 8, S.E. 
Petersburg, 39, S.W. 
Petra, 50, N.W. 

16 Peuple tfouverain (ship), 43 
Pevensey, 3, S.E. 

Peverel, William (baron), 8, 


Peyrehorade, 45, N.E. 
Philadelphia, 39, N.W. 
Philhar, 37, N. E. 
Philiphaugh, 24, N.W. 
Philippeville, 46, S.E. 
Philipstbwn, 16, S.E. 
Phillippsburg, 30, N.E. 
UPhvbe (ship), 43, N.E. 
Phrenixls., 52, S.E. 
Picardy, 14, N.E. 
Piceham, 5, S.W. 
Pickering, Vale of, 3, N.E. 

17 Pickle (ship), 43, N.E. 
Pietermaritzburg, 49, S.E. 
Pinkie Cleugh, 20, N.W. 
Pinwedene, 5, S.W. 
Pipewell, 19, S.E. 
Pirna, 34, N.E. 

Pirou, 7, N.W. 
Pisuerga, R., 45, N.W. 
PitsligoCas., 12, N.E. 
Pittsburg, on the site of For 

Duquesne, which see. 
Plancenoit, 46, N. E. 
Plasencia, 31, N.W. 
Plassey, 38, N.E. 
Pittsburgh, 44, N.E. 
Pleshey, 11, N.E. 
Ploesci.oO, N.W, 
Pluntune, 5, S.W. 
15 Pluton (ship), 43, N.E. 
Plymouth, 18, S.W. 
Point du Jour, 46, N.E. 
Poissy, 14, N.E. 
Poitiers, 6, S.W. 
Poitou, 14, N.W. 
Poitou, Roy. de (baron), 8, 


Poland, 23, N.E. 
Policode, 35, N.W. 
Poliloor, 35, N.E. 
26 Polyphemus (ship), 43, N. E. 
Pomfret, or Pontefract, which 


Pondicherry, 35, N.E. 
Poninges, 5, S.W. 
Pons, 9, S.W. 
Pont de TArche, 7, N.E. 
Pontefract, 18, N.E. 
Ponthieu, C. of, 6, N.E. 
Pont 1'Eveque, 15, N.W. 
Pontorson, 7, S.W. 
Pontvallain, 14, N.W. 
Pool, Owen of (baron), 8, S.W. 
Poonah, 37, N.E. 
Porchester, 3, S.E. 
Porhoet, C. of, 13, N.W. 
Port Alfred, 49, S.E. 
Port Elizabeth, 49, S.E. 
Portes, 7, S.E. 
Porteslage, 5, S.W. 
Port Florence, 48, S. E. 
Port, Hugh de (baron), 8, S.E. 
Portland Bill, 27, S.W. 
Port Lokko, 47, S.W. 
Port Mahon, 43, S.E. 
Port Nolloth, 49, S.W. 
Portobello, 44, N.W. 
Porto Novo, 35, N.E. 
Portrush, 22, N.E. 
Port Said, 48, N.W. 
Portsmouth, 14, N.W. 
Portsmouth (U.S.A. ), 39, S. W. 
Portugal, 23, N.E. 
Portumna, 22, S.W. 
Portus LeimuKi', 2, S. E. 
Port Victoria, 49, N. E. 
Potomac, R., 39, S.W. 
Powys, 4, S.W. 
Prag, 34, N.E. 
Prahsu, 47, S.W. 
Pravodi, 50, S.W. 
Prestetone, 5, S.W. 
Prestetone, 5, S.E. 
Prestetune, 5, S. W. 
Preston, 33, S.E. 
Prestonpans, 33, N.E. 
Pretoria, 49, S.E, 
a. Prince d< i Afuriits (ship), 43 
21 Prince of Wales (ship), 43, 


Princetown, 39, N.W. 
Prome, 36, S.E. 



Provins, 6, N.E. 

Pt. del'Arche, 15, N.E. 

Puerto Rico, 34, S.E. 

Qina, 48, N.W. 

Quarrer, 19, S.E. 

Quatre Bras, 46, N.E. 

Quatre Vallees, 13, S.W. 

Quebec, 52, N.W. 

Queen's County, 20, S.E. 

Queenstown, 49, S.E. 

Quercy, 13, S.E. 

Quetta, 36, N.W. 

Quhell, or Shaivs (clan), 12 


Quiberon, 34, N.E. 
Quilimane, 49, S.E. 
Quimper, 13, N.W. 


Rabba, 47, S.E. 

Radcot Bridge, on the Thames, 

near Farringdon, 24, S.E. 
Radepont, 7, N.E. 
Raelcaceaster (Tadcaster), 3, 


Raglan Castle, 25, S.W. 
Rahatgur, 37, S.E. 
Rain, 30, N.E. 
Rais, S. of, 13, N.W. 
Rajgurh, 37, S.E. 
Rajmahl, 35, S.W. 
Rajpootana, 38, N.W. 
Rajpore, 37, S.W. 
Raleigh, B., 39, S.W. 
Rambouillet, 15, N.E. 
Ramelle, 5, S.E 
Ramillies. 30, S.W.^ 
Ramnagar, 36, N.W. 
Ramoo, 36, S.E. 
Rampura, 36, S.W. 
Ramsey, 19, S.E. 
Ranald Macdonald (clan), 12, 

Ranald of Lochaber, (clan), 12, 


Ranby Hawe, 18, N.E. 
Rangoon, 36, S.E. 
Ransart, 46, S.E. 
Rasgrad, 50, S.W. 
Ratae, 2, S.E. 
Ratendone, 5, S.E. 
RathlinL, 22, N.E. 
Rathmines, 22, S.E. 
Ravenhill, 2, N.E. 
Ravenspur, 18, N.E. 
Ravi, R. 38, N. W. 
o. Rayo (ship), 43. 
Re", isle, in front of La Rochelle, 

21, S.W. 
Reading, 3, S.E. 
RedCas., 12, N.W. 
Red Sea, 48, N.E. 
\ZRedoubtable (ship), 43, N.E. 
Redvers, Isa de (baron), 8, 


Ree, L. 16, N.W. 
Regni, 2, S.E. 
Regulbium, 2, S.E. 
Reigate, 11, S.E. 

Reims, 6, N.E. 
Remalard, 7, S.E. 
Rennes,6, N.W. 
Repton, 3, S.E. 
Requena, 31, S.E. 
Reredfelle, 5, N.E. 
Rethel, 6, N.E. 
25 Revenge (ship), 43, N E. 
Revesby, 19, N.E. 
Rewari, 37, N.E. 
Rewley, 19, S.E. 
Rhe', isle, see Re. 
Rheims, 14, N.E. 
Rhine, R., 41, N.E. 
Rhodesia, 49, S.E. -N.E. 
Rh6ne, R., 21, S.E. 
Rhuddlan, 19, N.W. 
Ribble, R., 4, N.W. 
Ribchester, 3 N.W. 
Richmond (Virginia, U.S.), 39, 


Richmond (Yorksh.), 19, N.E. 
Rimniku Saratu, 50, N.W. 
Riom, 6, S.E. 
Rioseco, 45, N.W. 
Ripe or Echingtone, 5, S.E. 
Ripon, 3, N.E. 
Risle, R., 7, S.E. 
Rivaulx, 19, N.E. 
Rixensart, 46, N.E. 
Roanne, 13, S.E. 
Roanoke, R., 39, S.W. 
Robertsbridge, 19, S.E. 
Roche, 19, N.E. 
Roche-au-Moine, 10, N.W. 
Roche, C., 43, N.E. 
Rochefort, 43, S.W. 
Rochefort (Neth.), 41, S.E. 
Rochelle, see La Rochelle. 
Rochester, 8, S.E. 
Roche Habile. 7, S.E. 
Rocourt, 33, N.W. 
Rocroi, 46, N.W. 
Rode, Ste Agathe, 46, N.E. 
Rodez, 13, S.E. 
Rodriguez I., 52, S.E. 
Roelent, Rob, de (baron), 8, 


Roer, R., 41, S.E. 
Roermond, 30, N.W. 
Roeulx, 46, S.W. 
Rohan, 6, N.W. 
Roliga, 45, S.W. 
Rommels, Fd., 23, N.W. 
Romney, 11, S.E. 
Romorantin, 14, N.E. 
Roncesvalles, 14, S.W. 
Roosebecke, W., 15, N.E. 
Rosbecque, see Roosebecke. 
Roscommon, 22, N.W. 
Ross, 12, N.W. 
Rossbach, 34, N.W. 
Rothesay Gas., 12, S.W. 
Rotingedene, 5, S.W. 
Rotterdam, 41, N.W. 
Rotumah, 52, S.E. 
Roucoux, see Rocourt. 
Rouen, 6, N.E. 
Rouergue, 13, S.E. 
Rouey, 6, N.E. 
Roundaway Down, 34, S.E. 
Roussillon, 13, S.E. 
Roussillon, C. of, 6, S.E. 
Rouvray, near Janville, which 


Rovuma, R., 49, N.E. 

Rowtonheath, 24, N.W. 

Roxburgh, 12, S.E. 

Roxburgh, C., 12, S.E. 

Royacotta, 35, N.W. 

33 Royal Sovereign (ship) 
43, N.E. 

Royan, 9, S.W. 

Roye, 46, N.W. 

Royston, 3, S.E. 

Rudolph, L., 48, S.E. 

Ruffprd, 19, N.E. 

Rugians, 1, N.E. 

Ruhr, R., 34, N.W. 

Runnymede, on the Thames, 
south-east and close to Wind- 
sor (3, S.E.), on the borders 
of Surrey. 

Rustchuk, 50, N.W. 

Ruthin, 11, N.W. 

Rutupial, 2, S.E. 

Rye, 4, S.E. 

Rye House, south-east of and 
close to Hertford, 4, S.E. 

Ryknield Way (Iknield), 2, 

Ryles, 36, S.W. 

Ryswick, 28, N.E. 


Sabaki, R., 48, S.E. 

Sable, 15, N.W. 

Sabrina, Fl. 2, S.W. 

Sabugal, 45, N.W. 

Sacheham, 5, N.W. 

Sacketts Harbour, 44, N.E. 

Sagar, 36, S.W. 

Sahagan, 45, N.W. 

Sahara (Gr. Desert), 47, S.W., 


Saharanpur, 36, N. W. 
St. Albans, 18, S.E. 
St. Amand, 7, N.E. 
St. Andrews, 12, S.E. 
St. Andrews (Eng.), 19, S.E. 
m. St. Augustine (ship), 43 
St. Benets of Hulme, 19, S.E. 
St. Brieuc, 13, N.W. 
St. Cast, 34, N.E. 
St. Christoph, 44, N.W. 
St. Clair-sur-Epte, close to and 

south of Gisors (7, N-E. ), on 

the Epte River. 
St. Davids, 4, S.W. 
St. Davids, Bp. of (baron), 8, 


St. Denis, 14, N.E. 
St. Dogmaels, 19, S.W. 
St. Edmundsbury, see Bury 

St. Edm. 

S. Estevan, 45, N.E. 
St. Etienne, 7, N.W. 
St. Eustache, 40, N.W. 
St. Evroult de Montfort, 7, 


S. Fiorenzo, 43, S.E. 
St. Flour, 13, S.E. 
St. Foy la Gde., 15, S.W. 
n. S. Francisco de Asis (ship), 

St. Georges-Boscherville, 7, 

St. George's Channel, 24, S.W. 

St. Georgia, Is., 52, S.W. 

St. Germain, 15, N.E. 

St. Helena, 52, S.W. 

St. Helens (Eng.), 28, N.W. 

St. Hilaire du Harcouet, 7, 


St. Hubert, 41, S.E. 
St. Jago de Cuba, 44, N.W. 
St. James, 7, S.W. 
St. Jean, 45, N.E. 
St. Jean d'Angely, 13, S.W. 
S. Jean le Thomas, 7, S.W. 
d. S. Juan Nepomuceno (ship), 


St. Julien, 7, N.E. 
St. Just, 15, N.E. 
St. Krym, 50, S.E. 
St. Lawrence, R. , 39, N. W. 
St. Lever, 7, S.W. 
St. Lo, 6, N.W. 
St. Louise, 47, S.W. 
St. Lucia, 44, N.W. 
St. Malo, 6, N.W. 
S. Marcial, 45, N.E. 
St. Martin du V x Belleme, 7, 


St. Michael's Mount, 11, S.W. 
St. Nicolos, 7, N.W. 
St. Olalla, 45, N.W. 
St. Omer, 14, N.E. 
St. Ouen, 7, N.E. 
S. Paolo de Loanda, 49, N.W. 
St. Pol, 6, N.E. 
St. Pol de Leon, 6, N.W. 
St. Quentin, 6, N.E. 
St. Sauveur, 7, S.E. 
St. Sauveur le Viconite, 7, 


St. Scolasse, 7, S.E. 
St. Thaurin, 7, S.E. 
St. Valery-en-Caux, 14, N.W. 
St. Vandrille, 7, N.E. 
St. Victor, 7, N.E. 
St. Vincent, 44, N.W. 
St. Vincent, Cape, 43, S.W. 
Saintes, 6, S.W. 
Saintes, Isles des, south of 

Guadeloupe, Rodney's vic- 
tory, 40, N.W. 
Salaga, 47, S.W. 
Salamanca, 31, N.W. 
Salescome, 5, S.W. 
Salisbury, 3, S.E. 
Salisbury (U.S.A.), 39, S.W. 
Salisbury, E. de (baron), 8, 


Salmonesberie, 5, N.W. 
Salomon Is., 52, S.E. 
Saloombar, 37, S.W. 
Saltholm Flat, 43, N.E. 
Saltwood, 11, S.E. 
Salzwedel, 34, N.W. 
Samanpur, 36, N.E. 
Sambre, R., 41, S.W. 
Samburu, 49, N.E. 
Sa. Morena, 45, S.W. 
Sancerre, 6, N.E. 
San Christoval, 45, N.W. 
Sandal, Cas., 24, N.W. 
Sandall, 18, N.E. 
Sande (Niam Niam), 48, S.W 
Sandershausen, 34, N.W. 
Sanderson his Hope, 23, N.W. 
Sandwich, 3, S.E. 
c. San Ildefonso (ship), 43 



i. San Jit-vto (ship), 43 

K. S'tn Leandro (ship), 43 

San Sebastian, 45, N.E. 

Sanpoo, R., 36, N.E. 

h. Sin Anna (ship), 43 

Sta, Cruz Is., 52, S.E. 

Santarem, 45, S.W. 

1 Santma Trinidad (ship), 43 

Santee, R., 39, S.W. 

Santiago, 45, N.W. 

Saone, R., 46, S.E. 

Saragossa, 31, N.E. 

Saraki, 47, S.E. 

Saratoga, 39, N.E. 

Sarlat, 13, S.E. 

Sarsfield, 16, S.W. 

Sart Dame Avelines, 46, N.E. 

Sarthe, R., 14, N.W. 

Sart lez Walhain, 46, N.E. 

Sasingham, 5, S.E. 

Satara, 38, S.W. 

Saugar, 37, S.E. 

Saumur, 10, S.W. 

Sauveniere, 46, N.E. 

Savandrug, 35, N.W. 

Savannah, 39, S.W. 

Savannah, R., 39, S.W. 

Savigny le Vieux, 7, S.W. 

Sawley, 19, N.W. 

Sawtre, 19, S.E. 

Saxons, 1, S.E. 

Saxons, East, 3, S.E. 

Saxons, Sth., 3, S.E. 

Saxons, West, 3, S.E. 

Scarborough, 19, N.E. 

Scarpe, R., 10, N.E. 

Schelde, R., 41, S.W. 

Schellenberg, 30, N.E. 

Schooner Bank, 27, S.E. 

Scilly Is., 40, N.W. 

7 Scipion (ship), 43, N.E. 

Scone, 12, S.E. 

Scoti, 1, N.W. 

Scotland, 20, N.W. 

Scots, King of, 8, N.W. 

Sebastopol, see Sevastopol. 

Sedgemoor, quite close to 

Bridgewater, which see. 
See, R., 7, S.W. 
Seekur, 37, N.W. 
Seez St. Martin, 7, S.K. 
Segelocum, 2, N.E. 
Segontium, 2, N.W. 
Sehore, 37, S.E. 
Sehwan, 36, N.W. 
Seine, Infer., 7, N.E. 
Seine, R., 14 N.E. 
Selby, 19, N.E. 
Selkirk (or Melrose), 3, N.W. 
Selmestone, 5, S.E. 
Seluue, R., 7, S.W. 
Semlintun, 5, S.W. 
Sena, 47, S.E. 
Senegal, 47, S.W. 
Senegal, R., 47, S.W. 
Senlac, 3, S.E. 
Senlis, 6, N.E. 
Sennar, 48, N.E. 
Sens, 6, N.E. 
Sepelei, 5, N.W. 
Sereth, R., 50, N.W. 
11 Strieuse (ship), 43 
Serinagur, 38, N.W. 
Seringapatam, 38, S.W. 
Seringpur, 36, S.W. 

Sri intone, 5, S. E. 
Seroor, 36, S.W. 
Serpent I., 50 N.W. 
Sesheke, 49, S.W. 
Sevastopol, 50, N.E. 
Severn, R., 33, S. K. 
Seville, 45, S.W. 
Seychelles, 51, S.E. 
Seye, R., 7, N.W. 
Shahabad, 36, S.W. 
Shannon, R. 29, S.W. 
Shawn or Qubel/e (clan), 12, 


'Sheelwana, 37, S.W. 
Sheppey, I. of, 4, S.E. 
Sherborne, 3, S.W. 
SherboroL, 47, S.W. 
Sherburn, 25, N.E. 
Sheriffmuir, 33, N.E. 
Sherstone, 3, S.W. 
Shetland Is., 51, N.W. 
Shibu, 47, S.E. 
Shilluk, 48, S.W. 
Shirestone, see Sherstone. 
Shirwa, L., 49, N.E. 
Shoebury, 4, S.E. 
Sholapur, 36, S.W. 
Sholingur, 35, N.E. 
Shoreham, 4, S.E. 
Shrewsbury, 4, S.W. 
Shumla, 50, S.W. 
Shuparee, t, 36, S.E. 
Sialhot, 37, N.W. 
Sibton, 19, S.E. 
Sicily, 43, S.E. 
Sidney, 51, S.E. 
Sieg, R., 34, S.W. 
Siegen, 34, S.W. 
Sienne, R., 7, S.W. 
Sierra Leone, 51, S.W. 
Sierra Morena, see Sa. Morena. 
Sifelle, 5, N.E. 
Sifelle, 5, S.E. 
Sikandra, 37, N.E. 
Silchester, 3, S.E. 
Silistria, 50, N.W. 
Sillintone, 5, S.W. 
Silly Gouffern, 7, S.E. 
Silures, 1, S.W. 
Silva Anderida, 2, S.E. 
Simferopol, 50, N.E. 
Sinai Pen., 48, N.W. 
Sind, 38, N.W. 
Sindhia, 38, N.W. 
Sindwaho, 37, S.E. 
16 Sirius (ship), 43, N.E. 
Sistova, 50, S.W. 
Sitanda, 49, N.E. 
Siwara, Oasis of, 48, N.W. 
Skaw, 43, N.E. 
Skibbereen, 22, S.W. 
Skipton, 24, N.W. 
SlainsCas., 12, N.E. 
Slaney, R., 22, S.E. 
Slieve Bloom Mts., 22, S.W. 
Sligo, 29, N.W. 
Sligo Bay, 29, N.W. 
Slobodsia, 50, N.W. 
Sluys, 14, N.E. 
Smerwick, 20, S.W. 
Smithneld, 39, S.W. 
Smith Sound, 23, N.W. 
Snottinga (Nottingham), 3, 

Sobat, R., 48, S.W. 

Sobraon, 36, N.W. 
Socotral., 52, S.K. 
Soest, 34, N.W. 
Sofala, 49, S.I-:. 
Soignes, Forest of, 46, N.E. 
Soignies, 46, N.W. 
Soissons, 6, N.E. 
Sokoto, 47, S.E. 
Solebay, see Southwold. 
Soligny la Trappe, 7, S.E. 
Solre sur Sambre, 46, S.W. 
Solway Firth, 33, S.E. 
Sol way Moss, 20, N.W. 
Somal (Brit. E. Af.), 48, S.E. 
Somaliland (Brit.), 48, S.E. 
Somaliland (Ital.), 48, S.E. 
Sombre, 28, N.E. 
Sombreffe, 46, N.E. 
Somersaetan, 3, S.W. 
Somerton, 11, S.W. 
Somme, R., 46, N.W. 
Sorauren, 45, N.E. 
Sorbiodunum, 2, S.E. 
Soreham, 5, S.W. 
Soresham, 5, S.W. 
Soule, V. of, 13, S.W. 
Soulle, R., 7, N.W. 
Southampton, 14, N.W. 
South Shields, 2, N.E. 
Southwell, 3, N.E. 
South West Africa, German, 

49, S.W. 

Southwold, 27, N.E. 
Spain, 23, N.E. 
Spaldings (clan), 12, N.E. 
14 Spartiate (ship), 43 
Spey, R., 33, N.E. 
Spinse, 2, S.E. 
Spithead, 43, N.W. 
Springbok, 49, S.W. 
Spurn Head, 18, N.E. 
Stade, 34, N.W. 
Stafford, 18, S.W. 
Stamford, 19, S.E. 
Stamford Bridge, 3, N.E. 
Standene, 5, S.W. 
Staninges, 5, S.W. 
Stanley, 19, S.W. 
Stanley Falls Sta., 48, S.W. 
Stanmere, 5, S.W. 
Starbuck I., 52, S.W. 
Stefanie L., 48, S.E. 
Steinkirk, 28, N.E. 
Stewarts of Appin (clan), 12, 


Still water, 39, N.E. 
Stirling, 20, N.W. 
Stochingham, 5, S.E. 
Stockport, 33, S.E. 
Stoke, 20, S.W. 
Stollhofen, 30, N.E? 
Stone Str., 2, S.W. 
Stoneleigh, 19, S.E. 
Storchestone, 5, S.W. 
Stour, R., 3, S.E. 
Stow-on-the-Wold, 24, S.E. 
Strabane, 29, N.E. 
Straits Settl., 52, S.E. 
Strangford, Lough, 22, N.E. 
Strassburg, 30, N.E. 
Strata Florida, 19, S.W. 
Strata Murcella, 19, S.W. 
Stratford, 3, S.E. 
Stratford Langthorn. 19, S.E. 
Stratford-on-Avon, 20, S.W. 

Strathclyde, 3, X.W. 
Strathearn, 12, N.E. 
Stnithnavern, 12, N.W. 
Stratton, 24, S.W. 
Strenaeskhalc, 3, N.E. 
Stuttgart, 30, N.E. 
Suakin, 48, N.E. 
Suck, R., 22, S.W. 
Sudak, 50, S.E. 
Sudan, Egyptian, 48, N.W. 
Sudbury, 3, S.E. 
Suesse, 5, S. E. 
Suessiones, 1, S.E. 
Suez, 48, N.W. 
Suffolk, U.S.A., 39, S.W. 
Suir, R., 29, S.E. 
Suleiman, Mts., 38, N.W. 
Sulima, 47, S. W. 
Sultinges, 5, S.W. 
Sunar, R., 37, S.E. 
Sunbury, 39, S.W. 
Surat, 36, S.W. 
Surinam, 44, N.E. 
Surrey, 4, S.E. 
Susquehanna, R., 39, X.W. 
Sussex, 4, S.E. 
Sutherland, 12, N.W. 
Sutherland* or Murrays (clan), 

12, N.W. 

Sutlej, R., 36, N.W. 
Suwarowl., 52, S.W. 
Swakopmund, 49, S.W. 
Swazi Ld., 49, S.E. 
Sweden, 23, N.E. 
24 Swiftsure (ship), 43, N.E. 
Swilly, Lough, 43, N.W. 
Swineshead, 19, N.E. 
Switzerland, 30, S.E. 
Sydney, 52, S.E. 
Syracuse, 43, S.E. 
Syut, 48, N.W. 

Taceham, 5, N.W. 

Tadcaster (Raelcaceaster), 3, 


Tagus, R., 31, N.W. 
Taillebourg, 9, S.W. 
Taimo, 48, S.W. 
Talavera, 45, N.W. 
Talmont, 6, S.W. 
Tamames, 45, N.W. 
Tainan, 50, N.E. 
Tamar, R., 3. S.W. 
Tamine, 46, S.E. 
Tarn worth, 18, S.E. 
Tana, R., 49, N.E. 
Tanatusl., 2, S.E. 
Tanga, 49, N.E. 
Tanganyika, L., 48, S.W. 
Tangiers, 34, S.E. 
Tanjore, 35, N.E. 
TaptiR., 37, S.W. 
Tara, 16, N.E. 
TarbatCas., 12, N.W. 
Tarbes, 45, N.E. 
Tarifa, 45, S.W. 
Tarn, R., 13, S.E. 
Tarragona, 45, N.E. 
Tartas, 9, S.W. 
Tasmania, 52, S.E. 
Tatar Bunar, 50, N.W. 
Tatta, 36, S.W. 



Taunton, 11, S.W. 
Taunus, Mts., 34, S.W. 
Tavistock, 19, S.W. 
Tay, R., 12, N.E. 
Tchernavoda, 50, N.W. 
Tchernaya, R., 50, S.E. 
Tchongar, 50, N.E. 
Tees, R., 4, N.E. 
Tekuciu, 50, N.W. 
Telentone, 5, S.E. 
Tellicherry, 38, S.W. 
Te'me'raire (ship), 43, N.E. 
Temploux, 46, S.E. 
Tenchebray, see Tinchebray. 
Tender, I. of, 50, N.E. 
Tennessee R., 44, S.W. 
Tenterden, 20, S.W. 
Terouenne, see Therouanne. 
Terringes, 5, S.W. 
Tewkesbury, 18, S.E. 
Texel, 27, N.E. 
Thai, 37, N.W. 
Thame, 19, S.E. 
Thames, R., 11, S.E. 
Thamesa Fl., 2, S.E. 
Thanet, I. of, 3, S.E. 

21 Themis (ship), 43, N.E. 
Therouanne, 21, N.E. 
Theseus (ship), 43. 
Thetford, 4, S.E. 
Thielt, 41, S.W. 
Thiers, 6, S.E. 
Thomond, 20, S.E. 
Thorembais lez Beguines, 46, 


Thorigny, 7, S.W. 
Thorney, 19, S.E. 
Thouars, 6, N.W. 
Thouars, Viscomte of, 13, 


ThrieveCas., 12, S.W. 
Thuin, 46, S.W. 

22 Thunderer (ship), 43, N.E. 
Thurles, 22, S.E. 

Thury, 7, S.W. 
Thy, 46, N.E. 
TibbersCas., 12, S.W. 
Tickhill, 11, N.E. 
Ticonderoga, 34, S.W. 
Tilbury, 33, N.W. 
Tilly, 46, N.E. 
Tiltey, 19, S.E. 
Timbuktu, 47, S.W. 
7 Timoleon (ship), 43 
Tinchebray, 7, S.W. 
Tinnevelly, 38, S.W. 
Tintagel, 11, S.W. 
Tintern, 19, S.W. 
Tippecanoe, 44, N.W. 
Tipperah, 38, N.E. 
Tipperary, 22, S.E. 
Tippermuir, 24, N.W. 
Tirlemont, 41, S.E. 
Tirol, 30, S.E. 
Tiverton, 25, S.W. 
Tobago, 44, N.W. 
Tobercurry, 43, N.W. 
Todeny, Rob. de (baron), 8, 


Tofeceaster, 3, S.E. 
Togaily, 50, N.E. 
Togo, 47, S.W. 
Tokar, 48, N.E. 
Toledo, 45, N.W. 
Tolosa, 45, N.E. 

Tonga Is., 52, S.E. 

Tonga Ld., 49, S.E. 

Tongres, 41, S.E. 

Tongrinne, 46, S.E. 

Tonk, 37, N.E. 

30 Tonnant (ship), 43, N.E. 

Tonnay-s. Ch, 9, S.W. 

Tonnerre, 6, N.E. 

Torbay, 43, N.W. 

Tordesillas, 45, N.W. 

Torgau, 34, N.W. 

Toringes, 5, S.E. 

Tormes, R., 45, N.W. 

Toro, 45, N.W. 

Toronto (York), 44, N.W. 

Torrejos, 45, N.W. 

Torres Vedras, 45, S.W. 

Tortosa, 45, N.E. 

Totems, Judhael de (baron), 8 


Totintune, 5, S.W. 
Toulon, 34, S.E. 
Toulouse, 6, S.E. 
Toulouse, Comte of, 6, S.E. 
Touques, R., 7, N.E. 
Touraine, D. of, 13, N.E. 
Tourcoing, 41, S.W. 
Tourinnes lez Ourdons, 46, 

N.E. . 

Tournay, 14, N.E. 
Tournon, 13, S.E. 
Tours, 6, N.E. 
Tower, The, 11, S.E. 
Towton, 18, N.E. 
Trafalgar, Battle of, 43, N.E. 
Trafalgar, Cape, 43, S.W. 
Trailgi, 5, S.W. 
Trajan's Wall, 50, N.W. 
Tralee, 20, S,E. 
Transvaal, 49, S.E. 
Travancore, 35, S.W. 
Trent, 30, S.E. 
Trent, R., 11, N.E. 
Trenton, 39, N.W. 
Treport, 15, N.E. 
Tresillian Bridge, 25, S.W. 
Treveri, 1, S.E. 
Treves, 42, S.E. 
Trichinopoly, 35, S.E. 
Trim, 22, N.E. 
Trincomalee, 35, S.E. 
Trinidad, 52 N.W. 
Trinomali, 35, N.E. 
Trinovantes, 2, S.E. 
Tripoli (town), 47, N.E. 
Tripoli (Turkish terr.), 47, 


Tristan da Cunha, 52, S.W. 
Troarn, 7, N.E. 
Troyes, 6, N.E. 
Truro, 19, S.W. 
Truxillo. 45, S.W. 
Tuam, 22, N.W. 
Tudela, 45, N.E. 
Tuli, 49, "S.E. 
Tultcha, 50, N.W. 
Tundja, R., 50, S.W. 
Tundridge, 11, S.E. 
Tungabudra, R., 38, S.W. 
Tunis (French terr.), 47, N.E. 
Tunis (town), 47, N.E. 
Turenne, 6, S.E. 
Turenne, Vicomtd of, 13, S.E. 
Turkana, 48, S.E. 
Turk's!., 52, N.W. 

Turnberry Cas., 12, S.W. 
Turnham Green, 24, S.E. 
Turnhout, 41, N.E. 
Tutbury, 20, S.W. 
Tuy, 45, N.W. 
Tweed, R., 3, N.E. 
Tweeddale, 12, S.E 
Tyne, R., 4, N.E. 
Tyningham, 3, N.W. 
Tyrconnell, 20, N.E. 
Tyrone, 16, N.E. 


Uamh, 33, N.E. 
Ubanghi, 48, S.W. 
Ubanghi, R., 48, S.W. 
Ubeda, 45, S.W. 
Uganda Protect., 48, S.W. 


Uklyuk, 50, N.E. 
'Ulm, 30, N.E. 
Ulster, 20, N.E. 
Umarkot, 36, S.W. 
Umfraville (baron), 8, N.E. 
Umtali, 49, S.E. 
Union Is., 52, S.W. 
United Provinces, 27, S.E. 
Unyoro, 49, N.E. 
Upington, 49, S.W. 
Upper Ossory, 20, S.E. 
Urgel, 6, S.E. 

Uriconium, see Viroconium. 
Uriel, 16, N.E. 
Urquhart Cas., 12, N.W. 
Ursitcheni, 50, N.W. 
Urspring, 30, N.E. 
Ushant, 40, N.W. 
Utrecht, 21, N.E. 
Uttoxeter, 25, S.E. 
Uxbridge, 24, S.E. 
Uxellodunum, 2, N.W. 
Uzes, 6, S.E. 

Vaal, R.,49, S.E. 
Valence, 13, S.E. 
Valence (baron), 8, S.W. 
Valencia, 45, S.E. 
Valencia de Alcantara, 31, 


Valenciennes, 41, S.W. 
Valentinois, C. of, 13, S.E. 
Vale Royal, 19, N.W. 
Val-es-Dunes, 7, N.W. 
Valle Crucis, 19, N.W. 
Vallore, 35, N.E. 
Vallum Antonini, 2, N.W. 
Valmont, 7, N.E. 
Valmont, R., 7, N.E. 
Valognes, 7, N.W. 
Vancouver I. , 52, N. W. 
Vanguard (ship), 43 
Vannes, 6, N.W. 
Varaville, 7, N.E. 
Varenne, R., 7, N.E. 
Varna, 50, S.W. 
Vasluiu, 50, N.W. 
Vassy, 21, N.E. 
Vassy (Normandy), 7, S.W. 
Vatteville, 7, N.E. 
Vaudey, 19, S.E. 

VectisL, 2, S.E. 

Velada, 45, N.W. 

Velay, C. of, 6, S.E. 

Vellinghausen, 34, N.W. 

Vellore, see Vallore. 

Vendome, 6, N.E. 

Veneti, 1, S.W. 

Venlo, 41, N.E. 

Venonse, 2, S.E. 

Venta Belgarum, 2, S.E. 

Ventadour, 6, S.E. 

Ventadour, C. of, 13, S.E. 

Venta Icenorum, 2, S.E. 

Venta Silurum, 2, S.W. 

Verde, Cape, 47, S.W. 

Verden, 34, N.W. 

Vere, A. de (baron), 8, S.E. 

Vermandois, C. of, 6, N.E. 

Verneuil, 15, N.E. 

Vernon, 7, N.E. 

Verona, 30, S.E. 

Verterae, 2, N.W. 

Vertus, 6, N.E. 

Verulaminum (Municipium), 2, 


Verviers, 41, S.E. 
Vervins21, N.E. 
Vic, 13, S.E. 
Victoria, 47, S.E. 
Victoria Falls, 49, S.W. 
Victoria Nyanza, 49, N.E. 
1 Victory (ship), 43, N.E. 
Viducasses, 1, S.W. 
Vieille Lyre, 7, S.E. 
Vienne, R., 14, N.W. 
Vieux Sart, 46, N.E. 
Vigo, 45, N.W. 
Vigo Bay, 45, N.W. 
Vilaine, R., 34, N.E. 
Villafranca, 45, N.E. 
Villaviciosa, 31, N.W. 
Villedieu, 7, S.W. 
Villefranche, 13, S.E. 
Villemur, 13, S.E. 
Villena, 45, S.E. 
Villeneuve, 15, N.E. 
Villers Perwin, 46, N.E. 
Villingen, 30, N.E. 
Vilvorde, 46, N.E. 
Vimeiro, 45. S.W. 
Vimory, 21, S.E. 
Vindhya Mountains, 38, N.W. 
Vindogladia, 2, S.W. 
Vinegar Hill, 22, S.E. 
Vinovia, 2, N.E. 
Vire, 14, N.W. 
Virgin Gorda, 34, S.E. 
Virginia, 39, S.W. 
Viroconium, 2, S.W. 
Virzon, 14, N.E. 
Viseu, 45, N.W. 
Vitre, 13, N.W. 
Vitry, 6, N.E. 
Vittoria, 45, N.E. 
Viviers, 13, S.E. 
Volcae, 1, S.E. 
Voreda, 2, N.W. 
Vouvant, 10, S W. 
Vriburg, 49, S.W. 


Waal R., 30, N.W. 
Wabash, R., 44, S.W. 



Waclai, 48, N.W. 

Wadelai, 49, N.E. Haifa, 48, N.W. 

Wahuma, 49, N.E. 

Wakefield, 18, N.E. 

Wain R., 38, S.W. 

Walcheren, 43, N.W. 

Walcourt, see Bossu lex. Wai- 

Walden, 19, S.E. 

Waldrene, 5, N.E. 

Wales, 4, S.W. 

Walfish Bay (Brit.) 49, S.W. 

Walhain, 46, N.E. 

Wall, 3, S.E. 

Wallingford, 4, S.E. 

Wallsend, 3, N.E. 

Walnoch, 5, S.E. 

Walsingham, 19, N.E. 

Walton, 11, N.E. 

Wanborough, 3, S.E. 

Wandewash, 35, N.E. 

Wangenies, 46, S.E. 

Waningore, 5, S.W. 

Wansdyke, 4, S.E. 

Wantage, 4, S.E. 

Wantelei, 5, N.W. 

Wapingetorne, 5, S.W. 

Warborgetone, 5, S.E. 

Warburg, 34, N.W. 

Wardha, R., 38, S.W. 

Warden, 19, S.E. 

WardourCas., 24, S.W. 

Ware, 11, N.E. 

Wareham, 8, S.W. 

Warenne, 7, N.E. 

Warenne (baron), 8, N.W. 

Warenne, Win. de (baron), 8, 

Warrington, 19, N.W. 

Warthe R., 34, N.W. 

Warwick, 18, S.E. 

Warwick, L. de (baron), 8, S.E. 

Wash, The, 3, S.E. 

Washington, 39, S.W. 

Wasingetune, 5, S.W. 

Waslebie, 5, N.E. 
Watchet, 3, S.W. 
Waterbeach, 19, S.E. 
Waterford, 29, S.E. 
Waterford Haven, 22, S.E. 
Waterloo, 46, N.W. 
Watford, 18, S.E. 
WatlingSt.,2, N.W. 
Wattignies, 41, S.W. 
WaveHey (Eng.), 19, S.E. 
Wavre, 46, N.E. 
Ways, 46, N.E. 
Weald, The, 3, S.E. 
Wear, R., 12, S.E. 
Wearingawick, 3, S.E. 
Wearmouth, 3, N.E. 
Wedmore, 4, S.W. 
Wei-hai-wei, 52, N.E. 
Welbeck Abbey, 25, N.E. 
Welahpool, 18, S.W. 
Werlinges, 5, S.E. 
Wernek, 42, S.E. 
Werra R., 34, N.W. 
Wesel, 34, N.W. 
Weser R., 34, N.W. 
Wesmestun, 5, S.W. 
Wessex and Dependencies, 4, 


Westminster, 19, S.E. 
Westmoreland, 33, S.E. 
Westport (Ireld.), 22, N.W. 
West Wales, 4, S.W. 
Wetherby, 25, N.E. 
Wexford Hd., 22, S.E. 
Weymouth, 18, S.W. 
Whale Sound, 23, N.W. 
Whalley, 19, N.W. 
Whitby, 4, N.E. 
White Plains, 39, N.E. 
White Volta, R., 47, S.W. 
Whitham R., 4, N.E. 
Whitland, 19, S.W. 
Whitsand Bay, 20, S.W. 
Wiboa's Dun (Wimbledon), 3, 

S K 
Wicham, 5, S.W. 

Wicklow, 29, S. E. 
WicklowMts., -22, S.E. 
Wigan, 33, S.E. 
Wigentone, 5, S.E. 
Wight, 1. of, 3, S.K. 
WigmoreCas., 11, N.W. 
Wilderspool, 2, N.W. 
Wilendone, 5, S.E. 
Wilesham, 5, S.E. 
Wilhelmsthal, 34, N.W. 
Willemstadt, 41, N.W. 
Wilmington, 39, S.W. 
Wilminte, 5, S.E. 
Wilsaetan, 3, S.W. 
Wilton, 8, S.E. 
Winceby, 24, N.E. 
Winchcombe, 19, S.E. 
Winchelsea, 14, N.W. 
Winchester, 11, S.E. 
Windermere, L., 2, N.W. 
Windhoek, 49, S.W. 
Windsor, 3, S.E. 
Wineltone, 5, S.E. 
Winnington Bridge, 24, N.W. 
Winnipeg, 52, N.W. 
Winnsboro, 39, S.W. 
Wintceaster, 3, S.E. 
Wintreburne, 5, S.E. 
Winwaed, 3, N.W. 
Winwidfield, 3, N.W. 
Wirce, de Geoff, (baron), 8, 


Wistanestun, 5, S.W. 
Witham, R., 24, N.E. 
Witu, 49, N.E. 
Woburn, 19, S.E. 
Wolfenbiittel, 34, N.W. 
Wolstenholme Sound, 23, 


Woodchester, 2, S.W. 
Woodhouse, 19, S.W. 
Worcester, 25, S.W. 
Worksop, 18, N.E. 
Wormhout, 41, S.W. 
Wroxeter, 3, S.W. 
Wurdha, 36, S.W. 

Wye R., 4, S.W. 
Wymondham, 19, S.E. 
Wyreceaster (Worcester), 3, 

Yadkill, R.,39, S.W. 

Yakubu, 47, S.E. 

Yalta, 50, S.E. 

Yamina, 47, S.W. 

Yandabo, 36, S.E. 

Yarm, 19, N.E. 

Yarmouth, 43, N.W. 

Yellowford, 16, N.E. 

Yenibasar, 50, S.W. 

Yenikale, 50, N.E. 

Yeovil, 25, S.W. 

Yola, 47, S.E. 

Yorabad, 38, S.W. 

York, 18, N.E. 

York, Abp. of (baron), 8, N.E. 

York (St. Mary), 19, N.E. 

York town, 39, S.W. 

Youghal, 20, S.E. 

Ypres, 10, N.E. 

Yushun, 50, N.E. 

Yvry, see Ivry. 

Zafra, 45, S.W. 

Zambesi, R., 49, S.E.-S.W. 

Zamora, 45, N.W. 

Zanzibar (I. and T.), 49, N.E. 

Zaragosa, see Saragossa. 

Zarza, 45, N.W. 

Zealou* (ship) 43 

Zeila, 48, S.E. 

Zerapur, 37, S.E. 

Zorndorf, 34, N.E. 

Zuider Zee, 41, N.E. 

Zulu Land, 49, S.E. 

Zumbo, 49, N.E. 

Zutphen, 21, N.E. 

Zwolle, 42, N.E. 




Author of " Graeco-Roman Institutions," " A History of Civilisation," 
Handbook of Geography, chiefly Physiographic and Mathematical," &c., &c. 


Fifty Maps in small 4to, in colours, on a new graphic plan, 
with Explanatory Text in English, French, German, and other 
languages, the names of places, countries, &c., on the Maps 
themselves being in Latin ; with a full alphabetical index. 

The considerable progress made, in the course of the last thirty years, in our knowledge of ancient 
topography, has so far not met with a corresponding progress in the cartographic representation of ancient 
history. The great atlases of Dr. William Smith and Sir G. Grove, of Kiepert, and of Sieglin, are either 
obsolete or unfinished. It may moreover be stated that previous historic atlases of ancient history are 110 
longer in keeping with the modern advanced views of the graphic representation of historical facts. Maps such 
as even Grote added to his monumental history of Greece could now no longer be accepted as adequate carto- 
graphic illustrations. More is wanted. In the Atlas Antiquus here announced, the great historical events and 
many an institution of ancient history, including Oriental as well as Graeco-Roman times, are represented 
according to the system employed in the author's Student's Atlas of English History. By this means the student 
is enabled to form a graphic and plastic view of events that otherwise will always lack form and distinctness. 
Military moves are represented by coloured lines and arrows directly suggesting movement. Colonisation, 
the chief power of expansion with the Hellenes, and also with the Romans, is made clearer. And even strictly 
constitutional matters are brought home more efficiently by graphic representations, such as the territorial 
changes introduced by Cleisthenes ; the division of the Roman State into tribes; the local distribution of the 
various religious cults, &c. The text, taken from the original sources, together with the writings of the most 
competent commentators, gives a full explanation of each map. For the convenience of Continental students, 
the text will, in copies meant for Continental circulation, be in French, German, &c., respectively. It is hoped 
that this Atlas Antiquus will contribute to a more lifelike comprehension of ancient history. 



Fifteen large Maps, Atlas size, drawn on a new graphic 

plan, in colours, accompanied by Explanatory Text to each, 

and an Alphabetical Index 

This Atlas, like the Atlas of English History and the Atlas Antiquus, is meant to help the student of 
modern history in the task of representing to himself more easily, and yet more plastically, the complicated web 
of the events of Europe and America during the last three centuries. 

For two centuries, since 1618, the wars shaping the destinies of white humanity were almost exclusively 
international, and therefore covered very large areas. Accordingly, the maps of the Atlas of Modem History 
were necessarily made of a large size so as to enable the student to embrace the whole of the operations in 
spite of the numerous details. The same system of graphic representation that forms the distinctive feature 
of the Student's Atlas of English Histm'y, is applied to the Atlas of Modern History. Particular stress 
is laid in the text to each map on the strategic considerations suggesting the decisive moves in each campaign. 
The result of all the important treaties is given in the variations of boundary lines ; and both the colonisations 
and nationalist movements of the last two centuries are illustrated graphically. 




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